New France (French: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris (1763).
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New France is the site of a settlement located in Digby County in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.It was founded in 1892 by the Stehelin family of France and abandoned following the First World War.
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- Territorial evolution
- Population surveys
- Successors and legacy
The colony of Canada was a French colony within the larger territory of New France. It was claimed by France in 1535, during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier, when the land was claimed in the name of the French king, King Francis I. Canada remained a French territory until 1763 when it became the British colony of the Province of Quebec. In the 16th century, word "Canada" referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River from Grosse Isle to a point between Québec and Trois...
In the 240 years between Verrazano's voyage of exploration in 1524 and the Conquest of New France in 1763, the French marked the North American continent in many ways. Whether it was through by land distribution and clearing, the establishment of villages and towns, deploying a network of roads and paths or developing the territory with various constructions, the French colonists transformed and adapted the environments according to their needs. There are three major periods of expansion of the
A population survey was done in 1740 to estimate Canada's population. The survey of the Saint Lawrence River valley counted about 44,000 colonists in total. The majority of them were born in Canada and lived in a rural environnement. Of the colonists, 18,000 lived under the Government of Québec, 4,000 under the Government of Trois-Rivières and 22,000 under the Government of Montreal. As for colonists not living in the Saint Lawrence River valley, Île Royale counted 4,000 inhabitants, and ...
In 1791, the Province of Quebec was seperated into Lower Canada and Upper Canada. Lower Canada and Upper Canada were fused into the Province of Canada in 1841, before seperating again into the modern-day provinces of Quebec and Ontario during the Confederation of Canada in 1867. Because of the historical and geographical continuity, as well as the continued use of the French language, civil law, customs, cultural aspects and the ruling power of the Catholic Church in government until the Quiet R
Louisiana (French: La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.Under French control 1682 to 1769 and 1801 (nominally) to 1803, the area was named in honor of King Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle.
- French inheritance
- Property and tenure
- Marriage community
- Debt recovery
The Custom of Paris was one of France's regional custumals of civil law. It was the law of the land in Paris and the surrounding region in the 16th–18th centuries and was applied to French overseas colonies, including New France. First written in 1507 and revised in 1580 and 1605, the Custom of Paris was a compilation and systematization of Renaissance-era customary law. Divided into 16 sections, it contained 362 articles concerning family and inheritance, property, and debt recovery. It...
The Custom first originated in 16th-century France as part of a larger project of centralization of law. French law was not unified, having instead multiple regions with distinct laws emanating from each region's unique blending of jus commune and customary law. The Custom of Paris was just one of 360 uncodified custumals in effect across the different regions of 15th-century France. The customary law of Paris was viewed as prestigious since it was the capital, so it began to be refined between
Under the Custom of Paris, property was divided into movables and immovables. In the interest of encouraging trade, movable property could not be mortgaged and was not considered separate property, that is, property in severalty external to the marital community unless specified
Land was subject to feudal tenure and could be held in allod or fief, the latter coming in two distinct forms—either free socage or villein socage. Free socage was considered 'noble' and the latter 'peasant'. Under feudal tenure, a fief could not be owned outright but was ...
Under the Custom, when a couple got married in New France, the couple married in community of property, which means that the couple's marital property was co-owned. However, any immovable property purchased prior to marriage or directly inherited remained separate property; all o
Marriage contracts were often used to alter the rules of inheritance and to provide the surviving spouse and family with one or more financial safeguard. The most important such safeguard was dower, a fixed sum set aside for the wife to live on in the event of her husband's death
The nature of the socio-economic environment in rural Quebec was conducive to marriage. In contrast to France, the social pressures for marriages into affluent and prestigious households was not as pronounced in the new colony, which allowed for greater leniency in gaining parent
The Custom of Paris also set out what happened to a deceased's property on death, so wills were fairly rare. Since it was a legal matter, it was important to have a notary take inventory of the family estate in the event of the death of either spouse. To have some control over th
The financial well-being of a deceased person's children was safeguarded in the Custom by the legitime, a sum equal to half of what each child would have received in an equitable division of the marital community property if no gifts or bequests had previously diminished it. Ever
The Custom of Paris turned the family into a body corporate that usually co-owned property. That arrangement contributed to egalitarian family structures and a preoccupation with "fairness" in family matters in New France. While technically property was divided into separate prop
The Custom of Paris contained four titles regarding debt collection and commercial transactions that were greatly influenced by the canon-law ban on interest-bearing loans. For instance, with the exception of rentcharges that allowed interest, notaries were forbidden to include interest charges within their contracts. Notaries played a significant role in the French legal tradition, as opposed to English practice; notaries drew up most agreements and served as mediators. Performing the function
France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of twelve.
The Intendant of New France was an administrative position in the French colony of New France. He controlled the colony's entire civil administration. He gave particular attention to settlement and economic development, and to the administration of justice. The office of the Intendant of New France was created by Louis XIV. In 1663, Louis and ...