Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a member of the House of Hohenstaufen and king of Germany from 1198 until his assassination.. The death of his older brother Emperor Henry VI in 1197 meant that the Hohenstaufen rule (which reached as far as the Kingdom of Sicily) collapsed in imperial Italy and created a power vacuum to the north of the Alps.
- Early Life
- Struggle For The Throne
- Posthumous Reputation
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Philip was born in or near Pavia in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, the fifth and youngest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his second wife Beatrice, daughter of Count Renaud III of Burgundy, and thereby younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip's great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138, already against the fierce resistance by the rivalling House of Welf. During the time of Philip's birth, his father Emperor Frederick was able to settle the longstanding conflict with Pope Alexander III and the Italian cities of the Lombard League by concluding the Treaty of Venice. The newborn was probably named after Frederick's valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne. Young Philip initially prepared for an ecclesiastical career, he entered the clergy of Adelberg Abbey and in April 1189 was made provost at the collegiate church of Aachen Cathedral, while his father left Germany f...
Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a very great extent, and appears to have been designated as guardian of Henry's minor son Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king. While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany. He appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henry's death, but was overtaken by events. Meanwhile, a number of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire hostile to the ruling Hohentaufen dynasty under the leadership of Prince-Archbishop Adolph of Cologne took the occasion to elect a German anti-king in the person of the Welf Otto of Brunswick, the second surviving son of the former Saxon duke Henry the Lion and a nephew of King Richard I of England. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, and after Philip had been chosen as d...
The papal support had little effect, however, and the Welfs as well as the Hohenstaufens had to assert their position by both threatening and bribing, by the display of splendour, and dynastic marriage politics. In 1199 Philip and Irene Angelina lavishly celebrated Christmas in Magdeburg–close to Otto's residence in Brunswick–in the presence of the Ascanian duke Bernard of Saxony and numerous Saxon and Thuringian nobles. The festival was rendered in an eloborated poem by Walther von der Vogelweide in order to spread the reputation of King Philip as a capable ruler. Again in Magdeburg Cathedral, Philip celebrated the elevation of Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourgon 9 September 1201. Also in 1201, Philip was visited by his cousin Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Although Boniface's exact reasons for meeting with Philip are unknown, while at Philip's court he also met Alexius Angelus, Philip's brother-in-law.Some historians have suggested that it was here that Alex...
Philip was preparing to crush the last flicker of the Welf rebellion in Brunswick-Lüneburg, when he proceeded to Bamberg, in order to participate as a guest at the wedding of his niece Countess Beatrice II of Burgundy with Duke Otto of Merania on 21 June 1208. After the ceremony, Philip retired in his rooms, where he was assaulted and murdered by the Bavarian count palatine Otto VIII. The pregnant queen Irene Angelina fled to Hohenstaufen Castlewhere she miscarried and died shortly afterwards. Otto of Wittelsbach escaped the Hohenstaufen henchmen. The motives for the murder have not been conclusively established. Allegedly the Wittelsbach scion, already known for his unstable character, had fallen into a rage when he learned of the dissolution of his betrothal to Gertrude of Silesia by her father, the Piast duke Henry I the Bearded. Duke Henry was apparently informed of the Wittelsbach's cruel tendencies and in an act of concern for his young daughter decided to terminate the marria...
Philip was first buried at Bamberg Cathedral; the Bamberg Horseman, a statue erected a few years after Philip's death, has been uncertainly identified as a representation of the murdered king. He was the first king ruling Germany to be assassinated since the era of the Merovingian dynasty, and one of only two German monarchs to be murdered; the other being the Habsburg king Albert I, who was slain by his nephew a hundred years later. After Philip's death, Otto IV quickly prevailed against the remaining Hohenstaufen supporters, was acknowledged as German monarch at an Imperial Diet in Frankfurt in November 1208 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III the next year. To make clear that he had not participated in Philip's assassination, he administered the Imperial ban to Otto of Wittelsbach and his alleged accomplices. Count Palatine Otto was killed as vogelfrei by the Imperial marshal Henry of Kalden in March 1209. However, Emperor Otto soon entered into conflict with Pope...
Philip of Swabia married Princess Irene Angelina, daughter of Emperor Isaac II Angelos on 25 May 1197.Their four daughters were: 1. Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198–1212), married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor 2. Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200–1248), married King Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia 3. Marie of Hohenstaufen (1201–1235), married Henry II, Duke of Brabant 4. Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), married King Ferdinand III of CastileAbulafia, David (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. Oxford University Press.Alemparte, Jaime Ferreiro (1986). "Acercamiento Mutuo de Espana y Alemania". In Martín, Antonio Pérez (ed.). España y Europa, un pasado jurídico común. Cometa S.A.Baldwin, Philip B. (2014). Pope Gregory X and the Crusades. The Boydell Press.Ciggaar, Krijna Nelly (1996). Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204. Brill.
Philip of Castile was an Infante of Castile and son of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and León, and his first queen, Beatrice of Swabia. He was Lord of Valdecorneja, and, according to some sources, Knight of the Order of the Temple, in one of those churches, the Church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga, he was buried in a coffin adorned with emblems of the Templars. An archbishop-elect of Seville, he was also abbot of the Collegiate church of Santa María la Mayor in ...
Robert de Clari calls him Emperor of Germany. Gunther von Pairis calls him Philip of Swabia. Geoffrey of Villehardouin calls him King Philip of Germany. 'Of Swabia' is just the shortest and most established moniker, from his first title of nobility. That's the name he goes by in pretty much any secondary source you'll see.
Philipp dari Swabia (Februari/Maret 1177 – 21 Juni 1208) merupakan seorang pangeran Wangsa Hohenstaufen dan Raja Jerman dari tahun 1198 sampai 1208. Di dalam sebuah perjuangan yang berlangsung lama untuk takhta Jerman setelah kematian Kaisar Heinrich VI di antara Wangsa Hohenstaufen dan Welf , ia merupakan raja Jerman pertama yang tewas terbunuh.
Wikipedia; King of Germany(formally King of the Romans): Reign: 1198–1208 (contested by Otto IV) Predecessor: Henry VI Successor: Otto IV. Duke of Swabia: Reign 1196–1208; Predecessor: Conrad II Successor: Frederick VI. Philip av Swabia var en prins av huset til Hohenstaufen og kongen av Tyskland fra 1198 til 1208.
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). Philip (August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of Germany in 1198. Agnes (1181 – 8 October 1184).
She was the second daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina of Byzantium. In 1208, at the age of seven, Maria was left an orphan by the unexpected deaths of her parents. On 21 June, her father was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach , and two months later her mother died after giving birth to a daughter, who did not live beyond early infancy.
Philip of Swabia. Mother. Irene Angelina. Elisabeth of Swabia (renamed Beatrice; March/May 1205 – 5 November 1235 ), was a member of the House of Hohenstaufen who became queen of Castile and Leon by marriage to Ferndinand III .