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  2. Presidential system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_system

    A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature. There are also hybrid systems such as semi-presidentialism. Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of ...

  3. Semi-presidential system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system

    A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state.

    • Characteristics
    • Subnational Governments of The World
    • Advantages
    • Criticism and Disadvantages
    • Differences from A Parliamentary System
    • See Also
    • External Links

    In a full-fledged pres­i­den­tial sys­tem, a politi­cian is cho­sen di­rectly by the peo­ple or in­di­rectly by the win­ning party to be the head of gov­ern­ment. Ex­cept for Be­larus and Kaza­khstan, this head of gov­ern­ment is also the head of state, and is there­fore called pres­i­dent. The post of prime min­is­ter (also called pre­mier) may also exist in a pres­i­den­tial sys­tem, but un­like in semi-pres­i­den­tialor par­lia­men­tary sys­tems, the prime min­is­ter an­swers to the pres­i­dent and not to the leg­is­la­ture. The fol­low­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics apply gen­er­ally for the nu­mer­ous pres­i­den­tial gov­ern­ments across the world: 1. The executive can veto legislative acts and, in turn, a supermajority of lawmakers may override the veto. The veto is generally derived from the British tradition of royal assent in which an act of parliament can only be enacted with the assent of the monarch. 2. The president has a fixed term of office. Elections are held at regular tim...

    Sub­na­tional gov­ern­ments, usu­ally states, may be struc­tured as pres­i­den­tial sys­tems. All of the state gov­ern­ments in the United States use the pres­i­den­tial sys­tem, even though this is not con­sti­tu­tion­ally re­quired. On a local level, many cities use Coun­cil-man­ager gov­ern­ment, which is equiv­a­lent to a par­lia­men­tary sys­tem, al­though the post of a city man­ager is nor­mally a non-po­lit­i­cal po­si­tion. Some coun­tries with­out a pres­i­den­tial sys­tem at the na­tional level use a form of this sys­tem at a sub­na­tional or local level. One ex­am­ple is Japan, where the na­tional gov­ern­ment uses the par­lia­men­tary sys­tem, but the pre­fec­tural and mu­nic­i­pal gov­ern­mentshave gov­er­nors and may­ors elected in­de­pen­dently from local as­sem­blies and coun­cils.

    Sup­port­ers gen­er­ally claim four basic ad­van­tages for pres­i­den­tial sys­tems: 1. Direct elections— in a presidential system, the president is often elected directly by the people. This makes the president's power more legitimate than that of a leader appointed indirectly. However, this is not a necessary feature of a presidential system. Some presidential states have an indirectly elected head of state. 2. Separation of powers— a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. This allows each structure to monitor and check the other, preventing abuses of power. 3. Speed and decisiveness— A president with strong powers can usually enact changes quickly. However, the separation of powers can also slow the system down. 4. Stability— a president, by virtue of a fixed term, may provide more stability than a prime minister, who can be dismissed at any time. Read fur­ther

    Crit­ics gen­er­ally claim three basic dis­ad­van­tages for pres­i­den­tial sys­tems: 1. Tendency towards authoritarianism— some political scientists say presidentialism raises the stakes of elections, exacerbates their polarization and can lead to authoritarianism (Linz). 2. Political gridlock — the separation of powers of a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Critics argue that this can create an undesirable and long-term political gridlockwhenever the president and the legislative majority are from different parties, which is common because the electorate usually expects more rapid results from new policies than are possible (Linz, Mainwaring and Shugart). In addition, this reduces accountability by allowing the president and the legislature to shift blame to each other. 3. Impediments to leadership change— presidential systems often make it difficult to remove a president from office early, for example after taking actio...

    A num­ber of key the­o­ret­i­cal dif­fer­ences exist be­tween a pres­i­den­tial and a par­lia­men­tary sys­tem: 1. In a presidential system, the central principle is that the legislative and executive branches of government are separate. This leads to the separate election of president, who is elected to office for a fixed term, and only removable for gross misdemeanor by impeachment and dismissal. In addition he or she does not need to choose cabinet members commanding the support of the legislature. By contrast, in parliamentarianism, the executive branch is led by a council of ministers, headed by a Prime Minister, who are directly accountable to the legislature and often have their background in the legislature (regardless of whether it is called a "parliament", an "assembly", a "diet", or a "chamber"). 2. As with the president's set term of office, the legislature also exists for a set term of office and cannot be dissolved ahead of schedule. By contrast, in parliamentary syste...

    Castagnola, Andrea/Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal: Presidential Control of High Courts in Latin America: A Long-term View (1904-2006), in: Journal of Politics in Latin America, Hamburg 2009.
  4. Semi-presidential system - test2.Wikipedia

    test2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system

    Canas, Vitalino - “The semi-presidential system”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law), Band 64 (2004), number 1, p. 95-124. Veser, Ernst. Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's Concept — A New Political System Model.

  5. Parliamentary system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system

    In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system ...

  6. President - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_system

    The constitution was written to make sure that the American executive never became as powerful as in the British system it had broken away from. The British Prime Minister is part of both the Legislature and Executive, whereas the American President is the head of the Executive.

  7. Presidential system : definition of Presidential system and ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com/Presidential system/en-en
    • Characteristics of Presidents
    • Subnational Governments
    • Advantages of Presidential Systems
    • Criticism
    • Differences from A Cabinet System
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Some national presidents are "figurehead" heads of state, like constitutional monarchs, and not active executive heads of government (although some figurehead presidents and constitutional monarchs maintain reserve powers). In contrast, in a full-fledged presidential system, a president is chosen by the people to be the head of the executive branch. Presidential governments make no distinction between the positions of head of state and head of government, both of which are held by the president. Many parliamentary governments have a symbolic head of state in the form of a president or monarch (Again, in some cases these symbolic heads of state maintain active reserve powers). That person is responsible for the formalities of state functions, or in cases where the head of state has reserve powers, the "hands off" ensuing of a functional parliament, while the constitutional prerogatives of head of government are generally exercised by the prime minister. Such figurehead presidents ten...

    Subnational governments, usually municipalities, may be structured as a presidential system. All of the state governments of the United States use the presidential system, however this is not constitutionally required. Another example is Japan where the national government uses the parliamentary system but the prefectural and municipal governmentshave governors and mayors elected independently from local assemblies and councils.

    Supporters generally claim four basic advantages for presidential systems: 1. Direct elections — in a presidential system, the president is often elected directly by the people. To some[who?], this makes the president's power more legitimate than that of a leader appointed indirectly. However, this is not a necessary property of a presidential system. Some presidential states have an unelected or indirectly elected head of state. 2. Separation of powers — a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Supporters[who?]say that this arrangement allows each structure to monitor and check the other, preventing abuses. 3. Speed and decisiveness — some[who?]argue that a president with strong powers can usually enact changes quickly. However, others argue that the separation of powers slows the system down. 4. Stability— a president, by virtue of a fixed term, may provide more stability than a prime minister who can be dismissed at any time.

    Critics generally claim three basic disadvantages for presidential systems: 1. Tendency towards authoritarianism — some political scientists[who?]say that presidentialism is not constitutionally stable. 2. Political gridlock - The separation of powers of a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Critics[who?] argue that this frequently creates undesirable and long-term political gridlockand political instability whenever the president and the legislative majority are from different parties, which is common because the electorate usually expects more rapid results from new policies than are possible. In addition, this reduces accountability by allowing the president and the legislature to shift blame to each other. 3. Impediments to leadership change — it is claimed[by whom?]that the difficulty in removing an unsuitable president from office before his or her term has expired represents a significant problem.

    A number of key theoretical differences exist between a presidential and a cabinet system: 1. In a presidential system, the central principle is that the legislative and executive branches of government should be separate. This leads to the separate election of president, who is elected to office for a fixed term, and only removable for gross misdemeanor by impeachment and dismissal. In addition he or she does not need to choose cabinet members commanding the support of the legislature. By contrast, in parliamentarism, the executive branch is led by a council of ministers, headed by a Prime Minister, who are directly accountable to the legislature and often have their background in the legislature (regardless of whether it is called a "parliament", a "diet", or a "chamber"). 2. As with the president's set term of office, the legislature also exists for a set term of office and cannot be dissolved ahead of schedule. By contrast, in parliamentary systems, the legislature can typically...

    Castagnola, Andrea/Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal: Presidential Control of High Courts in Latin America: A Long-term View (1904-2006), in: Journal of Politics in Latin America, Hamburg 2009.
  8. Semi-parliamentary system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-parliamentary_system

    Semi-parliamentary system can refer to either a prime-ministerial system, in which voters simultaneously vote for both members of legislature and the prime minister, or to a system of government in which the legislature is split into two parts that are both directly elected – one that has the power to remove the members of the executive by a vote of no confidence and another that does not.

  9. Executive president - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_president

    In presidential and semi-presidential systems, the president is elected independently of the legislature. There are several methods in which to do this, including the plurality system and the two-round system. Whilst these methods use the popular vote, not all presidents are chosen in this way.

  10. Elections in Zambia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_Zambia

    The same system was used for elections in 1978, 1983 and 1988, with Kaunda re-elected each time. Multi-party democracy was restored in 1991, with general elections held in October that year. Kaunda was defeated by Frederick Chiluba of the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) in the presidential elections, with Chiluba receiving 76% of the vote.