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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PsychiatryPsychiatry - Wikipedia

    Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination.

  2. Psychiatry, like most medical specialties, has a continuing, significant need for research into its diseases, classifications and treatments. Psychiatry adopts biology's fundamental belief that disease and health are different elements of an individual's adaptation to an environment. [75]

    • Background
    • Medicalization
    • Political Abuse
    • Nature of Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Marketing of Antipsychotic Drugs
    • Anti-Psychiatry
    • Psychiatric Survivors Movement

    Since the 1960s there have been challenges to the concept of mental illness. Sociologists Erving Goffman and Thomas Scheff said that mental illness was merely another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists;:102 behavioural psychologists challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena[citation needed]; gay rights activists criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder. Since the social enlightenment about homosexuality, it is no longer considered a mental illness and is more widely accepted by society. A widely publicised study by Rosenhan in Science was viewed as an attack on the efficacy of psychiatric diagnosis. However, the neutrality of the project is nowadays often questioned.[citation needed]

    Medicalization, a concept in medical sociology, is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Medicalization can be driven by new evidence or hypotheses about conditions; by changing social attitudes or economic considerations; or by the development of new medications or treatments. For many years, some psychiatrists (such as David Rosenhan, Peter Breggin, Paula Caplan, Thomas Szasz) and outside critics (such as Stuart A. Kirk) have "been accusing psychiatry of engaging in the systematic medicalization of normality". More recently these concerns have come from insiders who have worked for and promoted the APA (e.g., Robert Spitzer, Allen Frances).:185In 2013, Allen Frances said that "psychiatric diagnosis still relies exclusively on fallible subjective judgments rather than objective biological tests". The concept of medicalization was devi...

    In unstable countries, political prisoners are sometimes confined and abused in mental institutions.:3 The diagnosis of mental disease allows the state to hold persons against their will and insist upon therapy in their interest and in the broader interests of society. In addition, receiving a psychiatric diagnosis can in itself be regarded as oppressive.:94 In a monolithic state, psychiatry can be used to bypass standard legal procedures for establishing guilt or innocence and allow political incarceration without the ordinary odium attaching to such political trials. The use of hospitals instead of jails prevents the victims from receiving legal aid before the courts, makes indefinite incarceration possible, discredits the individuals and their ideas.:29 In that manner, whenever open trials are undesirable, they are avoided.:29 Examples of political abuse of the power, entrusted in physicians and particularly psychiatrists, are abundant in history and seen during the Nazi era and...

    Arbitrariness

    Psychiatry has been criticized for its broad range of mental diseases and disorders. Which diagnoses exist are considered valid have changed over time depending on society's norms. Homosexuality was considered mental illness but due to changing sociological attitudes, it is no longer recognised as an illness. Historic disorders that are no longer recognised include orthorexia nervosa, sexual addiction, parental alienation syndrome, pathological demand avoidance, Internet addiction disorder. N...

    Biological basis

    In 2013, psychiatrist Allen Francessaid that he believes that "psychiatric diagnosis still relies exclusively on fallible subjective judgments rather than objective biological tests". Mary Boyle argues that psychiatry is actually the study of behaviour, but acts as if it is the study of the brain based on a presumed connection between patterns of behaviour and the biological function of the brain. She argues that in the case of schizophrenia it is the bizarre behaviour of individuals that jus...

    Schizophrenia diagnosis

    Underlying issues associated with schizophrenia would be better addressed as a spectrum of conditions or as individual dimensions along which everyone varies rather than by a diagnostic category based on an arbitrary cut-off between normal and ill. This approach appears consistent with research on schizotypy, and with a relatively high prevalence of psychotic experiences, mostly non-distressing delusional beliefs, among the general public. In concordance with this observation, psychologist Ed...

    Psychosurgery

    Psychosurgery is brain surgery with the aim of changing an individuals behaviour or psychological function. Historically, this was achieved by removing of lesioning a section of the brain in ablative psychosurgery but more recently deep brain stimulationis used to remotely stimulate sections of the brain. One such practice was the lobotomy that was used between the 1930s and 1950s:20 for which one its creators, António Egas Moniz received a Nobel Prize in 1949. The lobotomy fell out of favour...

    Electroconvulsive therapy

    Electroconvulsive therapy is a therapy method, which was used widely between the 1930s and 1960s and is, in a modified form, still in use today and was one treatment that the anti-psychiatry movement wanted eliminated. Their arguments were that ECT damages the brain, and was used as punishment or as a threat to keep the patients "in line". Since then, ECT has improved considerably,and is performed under general anesthesia in a medically supervised environment. The National Institute for Healt...

    Psychiatry has greatly benefitted by advances in pharmacotherapy.:110–112 However, the close relationship between those prescribing psychiatric medication and pharmaceutical companies, and the risk of a conflict of interest, is also a source of concern. This marketing by the pharmaceutical industry has an influence on practicing psychiatrists, which affects prescription. Child psychiatry is one of the areas in which prescription has grown massively. In the past, it was rare, but nowadays child psychiatrists on a regular basis prescribe psychotropic substances for children, for instance Ritalin.:110–112 Joanna Moncrieff has argued that antipsychotic drug treatment is often undertaken as a means of control rather than to treat specific symptoms experienced by the patient. Moncreiff has further argued, in the controversial and non-peer reviewed journal Medical Hypotheses, that the evidence for antipsychotics from discontinuation-relapse studies may be flawed, because they do not take i...

    The term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967 and is understood in current psychiatry to mean opposition to psychiatry's perceived role aspects of treatment. The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments are "ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients“. Psychiatry is seen to involve an "unequal power relationship between doctor and patient“, and advocates of anti-psychiatry claim a subjective diagnostic process, leaving much room for opinions and interpretations. Every society, including liberal Western society, permits compulsory treatment of mental patients.The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that "poor quality services and human rights violations in mental health and social care facilities are still an everyday occurrence in many places", but has recently taken steps to improve the situation globally. Electroconvulsive therapy is a therapy method, which was used widely between the 1930s and 1960s and is, in a modified form...

    The psychiatric survivors movement arose out of the civil rights ferment of the late 1960s and early 1970s and the personal histories of psychiatric abuse experienced by some ex-patients rather than the intradisciplinary discourse of antipsychiatry. The key text in the intellectual development of the survivor movement, at least in the US, was Judi Chamberlin's 1978 text, On Our Own: Patient Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System. Chamberlin was an ex-patient and co-founder of the Mental Patients' Liberation Front. Coalescing around the ex-patient newsletter Dendron, in late 1988 leaders from several of the main national and grassroots psychiatric survivor groups felt that an independent, human rights coalition focused on problems in the mental health system was needed. That year the Support Coalition International (SCI) was formed. SCI's first public action was to stage a counter-conference and protest in New York City, in May, 1990, at the same time as (and directly ou...

  3. People also ask

    What are the different areas of Psychiatry?

    What are some psychiatry specializations?

    What are the branches of Psychiatry?

    What are examples of psychiatric diagnoses?

    • Prescribing Psychiatric Medication
    • Sigmund Freud
    • Neuropsychiatry
    • Criticism
    • Fields of Psychiatry
    • Common Psychiatric Conditions

    Psychiatrists are medically qualified doctors. They can legally prescribe medicationsto their patients to help emotional and behavioral problems. This does not apply to psychologists, who are not qualified to prescribe medicines. Psychiatrists learn about how the body and the brain work. Psychiatrists must learn about all kinds of illnesses. Sometimes a disease in the body causes the brain to work poorly. Cancer in the pancreas causes depression. Blood sugar problems in diabetesmellitus can cause a bad temper. These are only two examples. As doctors, psychiatrists learn about how medications can help the brain work better. They also learn how medications sometimes cause problems to the brain. Sometimes psychologists send their patients to a psychiatrist if the patient seems to have a problem that medicine might help. The patient should continue to see the psychologist. In the 1950s, the first medicine to help patients with bipolar disorder (formally known as manic-depressive illness...

    The best known psychiatrist is Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor who was trained in neurology. He became certain that hidden thoughts in the brain (which he called the unconscious) could cause physical symptoms and strange behavior in some people. He believed that human behavior was not all caused by the brain, but by things that happened to people when they were babies and young children. His research of this theory – the idea he had – led him to create "talking therapy" – psychoanalysis – where he tried to figure out what could cause the mind to do things like this. He thought that his figuring things out and telling the patients what had caused the behavior would cure the patient. Unfortunately, it usually made no lasting changes. This is why psychiatrists (and psychologists) have gradually figured out many other ways of helping their patients.

    Since the medications for mental illness were first discovered, there have been tools to understand why the mentally ill behave and think in ways that make it not easy for them to live. Doctors do this by studying the brain as directly as they can. This field of medicine is called neuropsychiatry. The medical doctors who work in the field are called neuropsychiatrists. They hope someday to really permanently cure or fix mental illness by finding ways to change the brain forever. In the meantime, they try to find ways to help by finding better medications. The science of psychology is studies the way people behave and change. Psychologists apply this what is found to make new ways of helping people change how they behave. Talking therapy and applied psychology were the first important ways of helping people with some problems of regular life. Some kinds of mental illnesscan be helped some this way, but some kinds cannot be helped. They need medicines instead, then sometimes a psychol...

    Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967. The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments may be more damaging than helpful to patients. Psychiatry's history involves what may now be seen as dangerous treatments (e.g., electroconvulsive therapy, lobotomy). Two charismatic psychiatrists who came to personify the movement against psychiatry were R.D. Laing and Thomas Szasz. Some ex-patient groups have become very anti-psychiatric, often referring to themselves as "survivors". Bessel van der Kolkis also a noted psychiatrist, author, researcher and educator based in Boston, USA. He states that there is a much higher incidence of psychiatrists administering prescribed medications among patients who have government insurance. Since most mental illnesses are trauma-induced, medication has little to no effect. Psychiatrists are supposed to rule out trauma before diagnosing but its more rare than not....

    Forensic psychiatry – the study of criminals and criminal behavior.
    Addiction psychiatry – study and treatment of chemical addictions.
    Child and adolescent psychiatry – study and treatment of children and teens
    Geriatric psychiatry – study and treatment of the aged
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PsychiatristPsychiatrist - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Subspecialties
    • Professional requirements

    A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors and evaluate patients to determine whether their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental ailments or strictly mental issues. Sometimes a psychiatrist works within a multi-disciplinary team, which may comprise clinical psychologists, social workers, occupatio

    The field of psychiatry has many subspecialties that require additional training which are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and require Maintenance of Certification Program to continue. These include the following: 1. Clinical neurophysiology 2. Forensic psychiatry 3. Addiction psychiatry 4. Child and adolescent psychiatry 5. Geriatric psychiatry 6. Palliative care 7. Pain management 8. Consultation-liaison psychiatry 9. Sleep medicine 10. Brain injury medicine Further

    While requirements to become a psychiatrist differ from country to country, all require a medical degree.

  5. Anti-psychiatry considers psychiatry a coercive instrument of oppression due to an unequal power relationship between doctor and patient, and a highly subjective diagnostic process. Wrongful involuntary commitment is an important issue in the movement. The decentralized movement has been active in various forms for two centuries.

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