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  1. Roman Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic

    The Roman Republic (Latin: Rēs pūblica Rōmāna [ˈreːs ˈpuːblɪka roːˈmaːna]) was the era of classical Roman civilization, led by the Roman people, beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

  2. Roman Republic (1849) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic_(19th_century)

    The Roman Republic (Latin: Rem Publicam Romanus, Italian: Repubblica Romana) was a short-lived state declared on 9 February 1849, when the government of the Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta. The republic was led by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Aurelio Saffi.

  3. Roman Republic (18th century) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic_(18th_century)
    • Overview
    • Annexation of Rome
    • Government
    • Flag
    • In popular culture

    The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis-Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The Roman Republic was one of the Italian "sister republics" of Revolutionary France. It was placed under the French Directory and was composed of territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in 1799. It immediately took control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiber

    Napoleon's campaign on the Italian peninsula from 1796 to 1797 was one of the reasons for his elevation to supreme commander of the French Army during the Wars of the Republic. After the creation of the First Coalition in 1792, Napoleon Bonaparte intended to take the fight to the coalition in Northern Italy to force the Austrians to the negotiating table via an invasion of Piedmont. At the same time, he intended to reinforce the French Army of Italy, which was outnumbered by Austria and the Ital

    The Republic's constitutional organization of powers was heavily influenced by that of the French Constitution of 1795, which itself was inspired by and loosely based on that of the ancient Roman Republic. Executive authority was vested in a Consulate consisting of five consuls. The legislative branch was composed of two chambers, a 60-member Tribunate and a 30-member Senate, which elected the consuls.

    The Roman Republic flag was a vertical tricolour black-white-red, taken from the French tricolour, as granted by Napoleon. It was governed by a clique of consuls, like the ancient Roman Republic. French forces had invaded the Papal States partly in revenge for the death of French general Mathurin-Léonard Duphot in 1797.

    In the opera Tosca by Giacomo Puccini the character Angelotti is called "consul of the deceased Roman Republic"; he is a fictional character although his name evokes that of the consul Liborio Angelucci. In James Joyce's short story "The Sisters" in *Dubliners* the unnamed protagonist remembers being told "stories about the catacombs and about Napoleon Bonaparte..." by Father Flynn, who had studied in Rome.

  4. The Roman Republic was a phase in history of the Ancient Roman civilization. According to legend, the city of Rome was founded by Romulus in c. 750 BC. It was a kingdom until 510 BC, when the last King, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown, thus beginning the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was a civilization ahead of its time and very ...

  5. Crisis of the Roman Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crisis_of_the_Roman_Republic
    • Overview
    • Dating the crisis
    • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
    • Gaius Marius and Sulla
    • Pompey

    The crisis of the Roman Republic refers to an extended period of political instability and social unrest from about 134 BC to 44 BC that culminated in the demise of the Roman Republic and the advent of the Roman Empire. The exact dates of the crisis are unclear because "Rome teetered between normality and crisis" for many decades. Likewise, the causes and attributes of the crisis changed throughout the decades, including the forms of slavery, brigandage, wars internal and external, land reform,

    For centuries, historians have argued about the start, specific crises involved, and end date for the crisis of the Roman Republic. As a culture, Florence Dupont and Christopher Woodall wrote, "no distinction is made between different periods." However, referencing Livy's opinion in his History of Rome, they assert that Romans lost liberty through their own conquests' "morally undermining consequences."

    Tiberius Gracchus took office as a tribune of the plebs in late 134 BC while "everything in the Roman Republic seemed to be in fine working order." There were a few apparently minor problems, such as "the annoyance of a slave revolt in Sicily". At the same time, Roman society was a highly stratified class system whose divisions were bubbling below the surface. This system consisted of noble families of the senatorial rank, the knight or equestrian class, citizens, non-citizens who lived outside

    The next major reformer of the time was Gaius Marius, who like the Gracchi, was a populist. Unlike them, he was also a general. He abolished the property requirement for becoming a soldier during the Jugurthine War, when the Roman army was very low on manpower and had difficulty maintaining the conflict. The poor enlisted in large numbers. This opening of the Army's ranks to the capite censii enfranchised the plebs, thus creating an esprit de corps in the enlarged army. Some elites complained th

    Pompey the Great, the next major leader who aggravated the crisis, was born Gnaeus Pompeius, but took his own cognomen of Magnus. Pompey as a young man was allied to Sulla, but in the consular elections of 78 BC, he supported Lepidus against Sulla's wishes. When Sulla died later that year, Lepidus revolted, and Pompey suppressed him on behalf of the senate. Then he asked for proconsular imperium in Hispania, to deal with the populares general Quintus Sertorius, who had held out for the past thre

  6. Constitution of the Roman Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_Roman...

    The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of unwritten norms and customs which, together with various written laws, guided the procedural governance of the Roman Republic. The constitution emerged from that of the Roman kingdom , evolved substantively and significantly—almost to the point of unrecognisability [3] —over the almost ...

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  8. Senate of the Roman Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senate_of_the_Roman_Republic

    According to the Greek historian Polybius, our principal source on the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Roman Senate was the predominant branch of government. Polybius noted that it was the consuls (the highest-ranking of the regular magistrates) who led the armies and the civil government in Rome, and it was the Roman assemblies which ...

  9. Last war of the Roman Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_war_of_the_Roman_Republic

    Octavian, now Augustus, transformed the Republic into the Roman Empire, ruling it as the first Roman emperor. In the ensuing months and years, Augustus passed a series of laws that, while outwardly preserving the appearance of the Republic, made his position within it of paramount power and authority.

    • March of 32 BC – August (Sextilis) 30 BC
    • Rome annexes Egypt
    • Victory for Octavian, • Rome is united under Octavian's rule, • Octavian becomes Augustus, • Roman Republic transforms into the Roman Empire
    • Greece and Egypt
  10. Roman Kingdom - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Kingdom

    According to these legends, the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding circa 753 BC, with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic circa 509 BC.

  11. Roman calendar - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_calendar

    The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.The term often includes the Julian calendar established by the reforms of the dictator Julius Caesar and emperor Augustus in the late 1st century BC and sometimes includes any system dated by inclusive counting towards months' kalends, nones, and ides in the Roman manner.