The Simla Agreement, or Shimla Agreement, was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan.
Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention.  The official treaty record, C.U. Aitchison's A Collection of Treaties, was published with a note stating that no binding agreement had been reached at Simla.
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Shimla city gets its name from Shyamala Mata, a fearless incarnation of the goddess Kali. The temple of the goddess is situated on Bantony Hill, near The Ridge, named Kali Bari temple.According to another version Shimla gets its name from the word 'Shyamalaya' meaning blue slate by faqir on Jakhu. But generally, the society finds the first version more believable, acceptable and reasonable. In 2018, the state government decided to change the city's name from Shimla to Shyamala.However, seeing the negative response of public and the locals, state government dismissed the plan.
Most of the area occupied by present-day Shimla city was dense forest during the 18th century. The only civilisation was the Jakhu Temple and a few scattered houses. The area was called 'Shimla', named after a Hindu goddess, Shyamala Devi, an incarnation of Kali. The area of present-day Shimla was invaded and captured by Bhimsen Thapa of Nepal in 1806. The British East India Company took control of the territory as per the Sugauli Treaty after the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16). The Gurkha leaders were quelled by storming the fort of Malaun under the command of David Ochterlony in May 1815. In a diary entry dated 30 August 1817, the Gerard brothers, who surveyed the area, describe Shimla as "a middling-sized village where a fakir is situated to give water to the travellers". In 1819, Lieutenant Ross, the Assistant Political Agent in the Hill States, set up a wood cottage in Shimla. Three years later, his successor and the Scottish civil servant Charles Pratt Kennedy built the first pu...
Shimla is on the south-western ranges of the Himalayas at WikiMiniAtlas31°37′N 77°06′E / 31.61°N 77.10°E / 31.61; 77.10. It has an average altitude of 2,206 metres (7,238 ft) above mean sea level and extends along a ridge with seven spurs. The city stretches nearly 9.2 kilometres (5.7 mi) from east to west. The city is a Zone IV (High Damage Risk Zone) per the Earthquake hazard zoning of India. Weak construction techniques and an increasing population pose a serious threat to the already earthquake prone region. There are no water bodies near the main city and the closest river, the Sutlej, is about 21 km (13 mi) away. Other rivers that flow through the Shimla district, although further from the city, are the Giri, and Pabbar (both tributaries of Yamuna). The green belt in the Shimla planning area is spread over 414 hectares (1,020 acres). The main forests in and around the city are of Pine, Deodar, Oak and Rhododendron. Environmental degradation due to the increasing number of t...
Shimla features a subtropical highland climate (Cwb) under the Köppen climate classification. The climate in Shimla is predominantly cool during winters and moderately warm during summer.Temperatures typically range from −4 °C (25 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F) over the course of a year. The average temperature during summer is between 19 and 28 °C (66 and 82 °F), and between −1 and 10 °C (30 and 50 °F) in winter. Monthly precipitation varies between 15 millimetres (0.59 in) in November and 434 millimetres (17.1 in) in August. It is typically around 45 millimetres (1.8 in) per month during winter and spring, and around 175 millimetres (6.9 in) in June as the monsoonapproaches. The average total annual precipitation is 1,575 millimetres (62 in), which is much less than most other hill stations but still much heavier than on the plains. Snowfall in the region, which historically has taken place in the month of December, has lately (over the last fifteen years) been happening in January or early...
Employment is largely driven by the government and tourism sectors.Education sector and horticultural produce processing comprise most of the remainder. Recently a Model Career Centre has been set-up at Regional Employment Exchange, Shimla to enable bridging the gap between job-seekers and employers. In addition to being the local hub of transport and trade, Shimla is the area's healthcare centre, hosting a medical college and four major hospitals: Indira Gandhi Hospital (Snowdown Hospital,) Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital (formerly called Ripon Hospital), Kamla Nehru Hospital and Indus Hospital. The city's development plan aims to make Shimla an attractive health tourism spot. Major departmental headquarters of the state are also located in Shimla such as Himachal Pradesh Government Printing and Stationary Press, Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board, and Himachal Pradesh Police Headquarters. The hotel industry is one of the major sources of income generation for the city. Shimla h...
The administrative responsibilities of the city of Shimla and merged areas of Dhalli, Totu, and New Shimla reside with the Shimla Municipal Corporation (SMC). All three areas were taken under SMC in 2006–07. Established in 1851, the Shimla Municipal Corporation is an elected body comprising 34 councillors, three of whom are nominated by the government of Himachal Pradesh. The nominations are based on prominence in the fields of social service, academics, and other activities. Thirty-three percent of the seats are reserved for women. The elections take place every five years and the mayorand deputy mayor are elected by and amongst the councillors themselves. The administrative head of the corporation is the Commissioner who is appointed by the state government. The two major political parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress with a third party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), emerging. The city contributes one seat to the state assembly (Vidhan Sabha) a...
According to 2011 census, Shimla city spread over an area of 35.34 km2 had a population of 169,578 with 93,152 males and 76,426 females. Shimla urban agglomeration had a population of 171,817 as per provisional data of 2011 census, out of which males were 94,797 and females were 77,020. The effective literacy rate of city was 93.63 percentand that of urban agglomeration was 94.14 per cent. The city area has increased considerably along with the passage of time. It has stretched from Hiranagar...
Hindi is the lingua franca of the city, it is the principal spoken language of the city and also the most commonly used language for the official purposes. English is also spoken by a sizeable population and is the second official language of the city. Other than Hindi, Pahari languages are spoken by the ethnic Pahari people, who form a major part of the population in the city. Punjabi language is prevalent among the ethnic Punjabi migrant population of the city, most of whom are refugees fro...
According to 2011 census, the majority religion of the city is Hinduism practised by 93.5% of the population, followed by Islam (2.29%), Sikhism (1.95%), Buddhism (1.33%), Christianity (0.62%), and Jainism(0.10%).
The city has 13 anganwadis and 64 primary schools. There are many schools from the British era. Some of the popular convent schools in the city are Bishop Cotton School, St. Edward's School, Auckland House School, Loreto Convent, Tara Hall. Bishop Cotton School and St. Edward's School, Shimla are for boys only, whereas, Loreto Convent, Tara Hall is for girls only. Other public schools include DAV Public School New Shimla, Shimla Public School, Himalayan International School and S.D. Senior Secondary School. The medical institutes in Shimla include Indira Gandhi Medical College and St. Bede's, a girls-only college. Government College, Sanjauli is also located in the city. The Indian Institute of Advanced Study, housed in the Viceregal Lodge, is a residential centre for research in Humanities, Indian culture, religion, and social and natural sciences. The Himachal Pradesh University (state university of Himachal Pradesh) is also located in Shimla. Himachal Pradesh University Business...The Mall :Sunset at Mall RoadThe Mall is the main shopping street of Shimla. It has many restaurants, clubs, banks, bars, post offices, and tourist offices. The lower part of Gaiety Theatrelies here.The Ridge :Christ Church at The RidgeThe Ridge is a large open space, which is situated alongside the Mall Road and hosts all the cultural activities in the city. Christ Church situated on the Ridg...Jakhoo :Jakhoo Temple front sideJakhoo temple is 2 km from The Ridge, at a height of 8,000 ft, Jakhoo Hill is the highest peak in the city and has views of the city and of the snow-covered Himalaya...Kali Bari :Kali Bari Temple at nightKali Bari is a temple dedicated to Goddess Kali's fearless incarnation Shyamala on which Shimla city is named. The extensive views from the temple include such s...
Local transport in Shimla is by bus or private vehicles. Buses ply frequently on the circular road surrounding the city centre. Like any other growing city, Shimla is also expanding with new habitats in the vicinity. Transport services in these areas are also expanding rapidly. Tourist taxis are also an option for out of town trips. Locals typically traverse the city on foot. Private vehicles are prohibited on the Mall, Ridge, and nearby markets. Due to narrow roads and steep slopes, the auto rickshawswhich are common in other Indian cities are largely absent.
Simla Accord (1914), signed in 1914, to purported to settle a dispute over the boundary line between inner and outer Tibet. Simla Agreement , signed between India and Pakistan in July 1972. It followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh.
The Simla Conference of 1945 was a meeting between the Viceroy of India Lord Wavell and the major political leaders of British India at the Viceregal Lodge in Simla.Convened to agree on and approve the Wavell Plan for Indian self-government, and there it reached a potential agreement for the self-rule of India that provided separate representation for Muslims and reduced majority powers for ...
The Simla Agreement also stated that the two sides would meet again for establishing durable peace. Reportedly Bhutto asked for time to prepare the people of Pakistan and the National Assembly for a final settlement. Indian commentators state that he reneged on the promise.
Jul 28, 2016 · The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan.
Simla Agreement; Agreement Between the Government of India and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on Bilateral Relations: 種類: 平和条約: 起草: 1972年 6月28日: 署名: 1972年7月2日 (48年前) () 署名場所: インド ヒマーチャル・プラデーシュ州 シムラー ラージ・バワーン: 捺印: 1972年 ...
The agreement has been criticised for Pakistan's failure to repatriate Urdu-speakers in Bangladesh and not holding to account 195 senior military officials accused of breach of conduct during war. The treaty was signed by the foreign ministers of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh in New Delhi after the Simla Agreement.