From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Thrace (disambiguation). The modern boundaries of Thrace in Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey. The physical–geographical boundaries of Thrace: the Balkan Mountains, the Rhodope Mountains and the Bosporus.
The word Thrace was first used by the Greeks when referring...
The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The ancient...
- Demographics and religion
Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Orthodox...
The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the...
- Turkish Republic of Thrace
The Provisional Government of Western Thrace later...
- List of Cities of Thrace
The modern boundaries of Thrace in Bulgaria, Greece and...
Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is the eighth-largest city in...
- Stara Zagora
The original Thracian settlement dates from the 5-4th...
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The modern boundaries of Thrace in Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. The physical-geographical boundaries of Thrace: the Balkan Mountains, the Rhodope Mountains and the Bosphorus. The Rhodope mountain range is highlighted.
East Thrace has a hybrid mediterranean climate / humid subtropical climate on the Aegean Sea coast and the Marmara Sea coast, an oceanic climate on the Black Sea coast and a humid continental climate in the interior. Summers are warm to hot, humid and moderately dry whereas winters are cold and wet and sometimes snowy.
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- Historical demographics
Western Thrace or West Thrace is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; East Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace. Inhabited since paleolithic times, it has been under the political, cultural and linguistic influence of the Greek world since the classical era; Greeks from the Aegean islands extensively colonized
After the Roman conquest, Western Thrace further belonged to the Roman province of Thracia founded in 46 AD. At the beginning of the 2nd AD century Roman emperor Trajan founded here, as a part of the provincial policy, two cities of Greek type, Traianoupolis and Plotinopolis. From this region passed the famous Via Egnatia, which ensured the communication between East and West, while its ramifications were connecting the Aegean world with Thracian hinterland. From the coast also passed the sea ro
The economy of Thrace in recent years has become less dependent on agriculture. A number of Greek-owned high-tech industries belonging to the telecommunications industry have settled in the area. The Egnatia Odos motorway which passes through Thrace, has contributed to the further development of the region. Tourism is slowly becoming more and more important as the Aegean coast has a number of beaches, and there is also the potential for winter tourism activities in the Rhodopi mountains, the nat
The Muslim minority of Thrace are Greek citizens of diverse ethnic origins and is recognised as religious minority in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne which Greece has signed with Turkey, and along with the Greek Constitution, enshrines the fundamental rights of the Turks and other ethnic groups of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and the obligations towards them. The Greek government is not referring to the Muslim minority by a specific ethnic background, as it includes Turks, Pomaks and Roma
The last censuses which asked about ethnicity were held in the transitional period before the region became part of Greece. A number of estimates and censuses during the 1912-1920 period gave the following results about the ethnic distribution of the area that would become known as Western Thrace
- Mythological foundation
- Identity and distribution
The Thracians were an Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history. Thracians resided mainly in the Balkans, but were also located in Asia Minor and other locations in Eastern Europe. The exact origin of Thracians is unknown, but it is believed that proto-Thracians descended from a purported mixture of Proto-Indo-Europeans and indigenous peoples during the third millennium BC. The proto-Thracian culture developed into the Dacian a
The first historical record of the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Ancient Greeks. The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ or Θρᾴκιος, and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη. These forms are all exonyms as applied by the Greeks.
In Greek mythology, Thrax was regarded as one of the reputed sons of the god Ares. In the Alcestis, Euripides mentions that one of the names of Ares himself was "Thrax" since he was regarded as the patron of Thrace.
The origins of the Thracians remain obscure, in the absence of written historical records. Evidence of proto-Thracians in the prehistoric period depends on artifacts of material culture. Leo Klejn identifies proto-Thracians with the multi-cordoned ware culture that was pushed away from Ukraine by the advancing timber grave culture or Srubnaya. It is generally proposed that a proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-Europe
Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a lasting political organization until the Odrysian state was founded in the fifth century BC. A strong Dacian state appeared in the first century BC, during the reign of King Burebista. The mountainous regions were home to various peoples, including the Illyrians, regarded as warlike and ferocious Thracian tribes, while the plains peoples were apparently regarded as more peaceable. Thracians inhabited parts of the ancient provin
The Thracians are mentioned in Homer's Iliad, meaning that they were already present in the eighth century BC.
The first Greek colonies in Thrace were founded in the eighth century BC. Thrace south of the Danube was ruled for nearly half a century by the Persians under Darius the Great, who conducted an expedition into the region from 513 to 512 BC. The Persians called Thrace "Skudra".
In the first decade of the sixth century BC, the Persians conquered Thrace and made it part of their satrapy Skudra. Thracians were forced to join the invasions of European Scythia and Greece. According to Herodotus, the Bithynian Thracians also had to contribute a large continge
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the northeastern parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace, and the islands of Thasos and Samothrace.
The region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace was established in the 1987 administrative reform as the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Region. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, its powers and authority were redefined and extended, with the preexisting region in many respects inheriting s
The capital of the region is Komotini, which by population is the fourth largest city, following Alexandroupoli, Kavala and Xanthi. The region is divided into the Macedonian regional units of Drama, Kavala and Thasos and the Thracian regional units of Xanthi, Rhodope and Evros, w
The political post of the Regional governor was also created in the course of the Kallikratis reform and can be considered the successor of the former prefects. The current governor is Christos Metios, who succeeded in November 2016 deceased Giorgos Pavlidis. Pavlidis was elected
The region is home to Greece's main Muslim minority, made up mainly of Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks, whose presence dates to the Ottoman period. Unlike the Muslims of Greek Macedonia, Epirus, and elsewhere in northern Greece, they were exempted from the Greek-Turkish population exchange following the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. According to the 1991 census, the Muslim minority numbered around 98,000 people or 29% of the population of Western Thrace, of which about half were Western Thrace Turks
- Under the Principate
- Late antiquity
Thracia or Thrace is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.
From the perspective of classical Greece, Thracia included the territory north of Thessaly, with no definite boundaries, sometimes to the inclusion of Macedonia and Scythia minor. Later, Thracia proper was understood to include the territory bordered by the Danube on the north, by the Black Sea on the east, by Macedonia in the south and by Illyria to the west, roughly equivalent with the territory of the Thracian kingdom as it stood during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. With the annexation of the
The Odrysian kingdom of Thrace became a Roman client kingdom c. 20 BC, while the Greek city-states on the Black Sea coast came under Roman control as civitates foederatae. After the death of the Thracian king Rhoemetalces III in 46 AD and an unsuccessful anti-Roman revolt, the kingdom was annexed as the Roman province of Thracia. The new province encompassed not only the lands of the former Odrysian realm, but also the north-eastern portion of the province of Macedonia as well as the islands of
Under the administrative reforms of Diocletian, Thracia's territory was divided into four smaller provinces: Thracia, Haemimontus, Rhodope and Europa. The new province of Thracia comprised the northwestern portion of the old province, i.e. the upper valley of the Hebrus river between Haemus and Rhodope and including Philippopolis, which had become the provincial capital in the early 3rd century. It was headed by a governor with the rank of consularis. The four Thracian provinces, along with the
- Voir aussi
La notion de Thrace a varié au cours de l'histoire et, parfois, d'un peuple à l'autre. De nos jours, on considère que la Thrace est la région délimitée de la manière suivante : 1. à l'est sa limite est constituée par le rivage de la mer Noire; 2. sa limite nord part du cap Éminé, suit la ligne de crête du Grand Balkan jusqu'au mont Ostra (en); 3. sa limite ouest part du mont Ostra, suit la ligne de crête du Galabets et de la Sredna Gora jusqu'au mont Moussala, passe par le Ravni tchal, suit la ligne de crête séparant les cuvettes de Tchépin et de Razlog, passe par le mont Videnitsa et atteint la frontière gréco-bulgare au village de Kaïntchal (commune de Sidironero (en)) ; 4. sa limite sud part de Kaïntchal, suit la frontière gréco-bulgare jusqu'au mont Giftokastro, descend jusqu'au fleuve Mesta, qu'elle suit jusqu'à la mer Égée. Elle longe, ensuite, le rivage nord de celle-ci, du détroit des Dardanelles, de la mer de Marmara et du Bosphorejusqu'à la mer Noire. On peut subdiviser la...
La Thrace pendant la Préhistoire
1. Préhistoire de l'Europe du Sud-Est La Thrace est habitée par les hommes dès la Préhistoire : les premières traces de présence humaine remontent au Paléolithique. L'homme de Néandertal habite dans la région pendant près de 300 000 ans avant d'être remplacé par l'homme moderne (Homo sapiens) au début du Paléolithique supérieur, pendant l'Aurignacien(entre −40 000 et −30 000). Au Néolithique à partir d'environ −6 400, l'agriculture venue de l'Asie Mineure voisine, se diffuse dans la région. L...
La Thrace dans l'Antiquité
À l'époque mycénienne, les Thraces forment des sociétés très hiérarchisées dominées par les soldats et les prêtres. Au début de l'âge du fer, les Thraces conservent leur organisation et forment des États religieux dirigés par des rois-prêtres, à la tête de troupes constituées de cavaliers-aristocrates et de paysans-guerriers libres. Des résidences fortifiées — capitales temporaires — sont bâties pour les rois itinérants. À partir du VIe siècle av. J.-C., certaines tribus thraces – essentielle...
La Thrace au Moyen Âge
Sous l'empereur Héraclius, l'empire d'Orient se transforme en Empire byzantin. Ne parvenant pas à contenir les attaques venues de toutes parts (Avars et Slaves au nord, Empire sassanide à l'est, arabo-musulmans au sud-est), l'empereur Héraclius réorganisa l'Empire sur le plan militaire. On considère que, à peu près à cette époque, est créé un thème de Thrace pour faire face, notamment, à la menace bulgare. À compter de l'installation des Bulgares au sud du Danube, en 680, la Thrace est consta...
La Thrace passait pour être une région dont les habitants étaient belliqueux : « Les peuples de ce pays aiment fort la guerre » (Vincenzo Cartari, Les Images des dieux des anciens, trad. Antoine du Verdier, Tournon, C. Michel et T. Soubron, 1606). En Thrace vécurent aussi le héros Orphée, fils du roi de Thrace Œagre et de la muse Calliope, et le gladiateur Spartacus.
1. Notices d'autorité : 1.1. Fichier d’autorité international virtuel 1.2. Gemeinsame Normdatei 1.3. Bibliothèque nationale de la Diète 1.4. Bibliothèque nationale tchèque 2. Description des peuples et coutumes thraces, dans le texte intégral de l'Enquête d'Hérodote (français et grec)[archive], sur le site de L'antiquité grecque et latine de Philippe Remacle, Philippe Renault, François-Dominique Fournier, J. P. Murcia, Thierry Vebr, Caroline Carrat. 3. The People of the God-Sun Ar and Areia (...