Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status (Romanian: Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria), or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").
- Frozen Conflict
In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation...
- Frozen Conflict
Transnistria is landlocked and borders Bessarabia (i.e., the rest of Moldova, for 411 km) to the West, and Ukraine (for 405 km) to the East. It is a narrow valley stretching in the North-South direction along the bank of the Dniester river, which forms a natural boundary along most of the border with (the rest of) Moldova.
- Before 1792
- Russian Empire
- Soviet Era
- War of Transnistria
This is the history of Transnistria. See also the history of Europe.
In ancient times, the area was inhabited by Thracian and Scythian tribes. Pliny the Elder names the Tyragetae, a Getae tribe living on an island of the Dniester, the Axiacae living along the Tiligul River and the Crobyzi, a Thracian tribe living beyond the Dniester. Map of Roman
Transnistria was an early crossroads of people and cultures, including the South Slavs, who reached it in the 6th century. Some East Slavic tribes may have lived in it, but they were pushed further north by Turkic nomads such as Pechenegs and the Cumans. In the 10th century, the
Transnistria was inhabited mainly by the Cumans and wars against them may have brought the territory under the control of the Kievan Rus' at times around the 11th century. It became a formal part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century. While most of today's Moldova c
In 1792, the southern part of Transnistria was ceded by Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire whereas northern part was annexed in 1793 in Second Partition of Poland. At that time, the population was sparse and the Russian Empire encouraged large migrations into the region, including people of Ukrainian, Romanian, Polish, Russian and German ethnicity. Russia began attempting to lure Romanian settlers to settle in its territory in 1775, after it gained the largely uninhabited territory between the
During World War I, representatives of the Romanian speakers beyond the Dniester participated in the Bessarabian national movement in 1917/1918, asking for the incorporation of their territory in Greater Romania. Nevertheless, Romania ignored their request, as it would have required a large-scale military intervention. At the end of World War I in 1918, the Directory of Ukraine proclaimed the sovereignty of the Ukrainian People's Republic over the left bank of the Dniester. After the Russian Civ
The Moldavian SSR, which was set up by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed from a part of Bessarabia taken from Romania on June 28, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, where the majority of the population were Romanian speakers, and a stri
The Moldavian SSR became the subject of a systematic policy of Russification. Cyrillic was made the official script for Moldavian. It had an official status in the republic, together with Russian, which was the language of "interethnic communication". Most industry that was built
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of perestroika in the Soviet Union allowed the political liberalisation at the regional level in 1980s. The incomplete democratisation was preliminary for the exclusivist nationalism to become the most dynamic political force. Some national minorities opposed these changes in the Moldavian political class of the republic, since during Soviet times, local politics had often been dominated by non-Romanians, particularly by those of Russian origin. The language laws ...
- Military strength
- Military conflict
- Ceasefire and Joint Control Commission
- Human rights abuses
The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and Cossack units, and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police. Fighting intensified on 1 March 1992 and, alternating with ad hoc ceasefires, lasted throughout the spring and early summer of 1992 until a ceasefire was declared on 21 July 1992, which has held. The conflict remained unresolved, but in...
The language laws presented a particularly volatile issue as a great proportion of the non-Moldovan population of the Moldavian SSR did not speak Moldovan. The problem of the official language in the MSSR had become a Gordian knot, being exaggerated and, perhaps, intentionally po
By 1992, Moldova had troops under the Ministry of the Interior. On 17 March 1992, they started recruiting troops for the newly created Ministry of Defence. By July 1992, total Moldovan troop strength has been estimated at 25,000–35,000, including called-up police officers, conscripts, reservists and volunteers, especially from the Moldavian localities near the conflict zone. In addition to Soviet weaponry inherited upon independence, Moldova also obtained arms from Romania. Romania also ...
The first fatalities in the emerging conflict took place on 2 November 1990, two months after the PMR's 2 September 1990 declaration of independence. Moldovan forces entered Dubăsari in order to separate Transnistria into two halves, but were stopped by the city's inhabitants, who had blocked the bridge over the Dniester, at Lunga. In an attempt to break through the roadblock, Moldovan forces then opened fire. In the course of the confrontation, three Dubăsari locals, Oleg Geletiuk ...
A ceasefire agreement was signed on 21 July. This official document whose broad lines was established by the Russian side, was signed by the presidents of Russia and Moldova. The agreement provided for peacekeeping forces charged with ensuring observance of the ceasefire and security arrangements, composed of five Russian battalions, three Moldovan battalions and two PMR battalions under the orders of a joint military command structure, the Joint Control Commission. It is estimated that in total
According to a Human Rights Center “Memorial” report, local Bendery eyewitnesses on 19 June 1992 saw Moldovan troops in armored vehicles deliberately firing at houses, courtyards and cars with heavy machine guns. The next day, Moldovan troops allegedly shot at civilians that were hiding in houses, trying to escape the city, or helping wounded PMR guardsmen. Other local eyewitnesses testified that in the same day, unarmed men that gathered in the Bendery downtown square in request of the ...
- Electorate shrinkage
- Political freedom in Transnistria
- Comparison between Moldova's and Transnistria's political system
- Participation of Transnistrians at Moldovan elections
Politics of Transnistria, a de facto independent state situated de jure within the Republic of Moldova in Eastern Europe, takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, whereby the President of Transnistria is head of state and the Prime Minister of Transnistria is head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Formally, Transnistria has a multi-party system and a unicameral parliament, called th
As shown by census results, between 1989 and 2004 the population in Transnistria decreased by 18%. This is significantly higher than the decrease of population in the Republic of Moldova. Data issued by Transnistrian authorities show that of the 555,500 inhabitants, a total of 394,861 are registered to vote, down 5.6% from a year earlier.
There is disagreement as to whether elections in Transnistria are free and fair. Western organizations, such as the OSCE, have declared that no democratic elections can take place in the region under the present circumstances and have refused to even monitor them.
While Transnistria has a strongly centralized political system, with the president being also the head of government and having the right to appoint the heads of local administrations, in Moldova the prime minister, elected by the parliament, is the head of government and the heads of rayonal administrations are established by the rayonal councils resulted from local elections. In Transnistria, the president is elected directly, while in Moldova, the president is elected by the parliament, the p
The number of Transnistrian holding Moldovan citizenship is disputed. According to the Moldovan government, 400,000 Transnistrians have Moldovan citizenship, which would be the majority of the population and would exceed by a wide margin the amount of ethnic Moldovans living in Transnistria. However, 2004 Transnistrian census data puts the official number of Transnistrians with Moldovan citizenship at 107,600 people. Transnistria does not allow the organisation of Moldovan elections in Transnist
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International recognition of Transnistria (also known as Pridnestrovie) – a disputed region in Eastern Europe located between Moldova and Ukraine – is controversial. Although Transnistria declared independence in 1990, no United Nations member recognises its sovereignty and the region is considered by the UN to be part of Moldova .StateNotesAlong with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Albania supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."Officially Belarus does not recognise Transnistria as independent. De facto Belarusian corporations and officials treat Transnistria as independent.Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Bosnia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Croatia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."
The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as Transnistria is officially called, is elected by the citizens of the republic on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of five years. The current president is Vadim Krasnoselsky, since 16 December 2016. He was elected in the 2016 election.
Since Transnistria is a state with limited international recognition and considered as part of Moldova, its currency has no ISO 4217 code. However, unofficially some Transnistrian organisations such as Agroprombank and Gazprombank used the code PRB , a code that would otherwise be reserved for Puerto Rico ( ISO 3166-1 country code PR ).Coin of the Transnistrian ruble(Value)Coin of the Transnistrian ruble(Technical parameters)(Diameter)Coin of the Transnistrian ruble(Technical parameters)(Thickness)Coin of the Transnistrian ruble(Technical parameters)(Mass)1 kopeck15.9 mm1.5 mm0.62 grams5 kopecks17.9 mm1.4 mm0.7 grams5 kopecks18 mm1.43 mm0.79 grams10 kopecks20 mm1.5 mm1 gram
- 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 rubles
- (commonly руб/р, with occasionally ПМР after it)
- 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 kopecks and 1, 3, 5 and 10 rubles
- Transnistrian Republican Bank
Transnistria din Republica Moldova este privită la nivel internațional și de guvernul Republicii Moldova ca o regiune autonomă a Moldovei (denumită „Unitățile administrativ-teritoriale din stînga Nistrului” : UATSN), dar în fapt și-a declarat independența (sub numele de „Republica Moldovenească Nistreană”), cu capitala în Tiraspol.
- UTC + 2
- 4.163 km²
Transnistria, aiemmin joskus myös Transdnestria (romaniaksi Transnistria (Транснистриа), ukr.