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  1. Tsardom of Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsardom_of_Russia

    The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus (Russian: Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo later changed to Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also called the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter I in 1721.

    • Name

      While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used...

    • Byzantine heritage

      By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a...

  2. Category:Tsardom of Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Tsardom_of_Russia

    Pages in category "Tsardom of Russia" The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  3. Russian Empire - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire

    Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in 1721 and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.

    • Name
    • Byzantine Heritage
    • Early Reign of Ivan IV
    • Foreign Policies of Ivan IV
    • Oprichnina
    • Time of Troubles
    • Romanovs
    • Legal Code of 1649
    • Acquisition of Ukrainian Lands
    • Raskol
    • Conquest of Siberia
    • Reign of Peter The Great and Establishment of The Russian Empire
    • State Flags
    • Primary Sources
    • Secondary Sources

    While the old­est en­donyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its doc­u­ments were Rus' (Russ­ian: Русь) and the Russ­ian land (Russ­ian: Рус­ская земля), a new form of its name, Rusia or Rus­sia, ap­peared and be­came com­mon in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russ­ian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovart­sev men­tion Rus­sia under the name Росиа, Medovart­sev also men­tions \\"the scep­tre of Russ­ian lord­ship (Росийскаго господства)\\". In the fol­low­ing cen­tury Rus­sia co-ex­is...

    By the 16th cen­tury, the Russ­ian ruler had emerged as a pow­er­ful, au­to­cratic fig­ure, a Tsar. By as­sum­ing that title, the sov­er­eign of Moscow tried to em­pha­size that he was a major ruler or em­peror on par with the Byzan­tine em­peror or the Mon­gol khan. In­deed, after Ivan III's mar­riage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Con­stan­tine XI Palaiol­o­gos, the Moscow court adopted Byzan­tine terms, rit­u­als, ti­tles, and em­blems such as the dou­ble-headed eagle, which sur­vive...

    The de­vel­op­ment of the Tsar's au­to­cratic pow­ers reached a peak dur­ing the reign of Ivan IV, and he gained the so­bri­quet \\"Grozny\\". The Eng­lish word ter­ri­ble is usu­ally used to trans­late the Russ­ian word grozny in Ivan's nick­name, but this is a some­what ar­chaic trans­la­tion. The Russ­ian word grozny re­flects the older Eng­lish usage of ter­ri­ble as in \\"in­spir­ing fear or ter­ror; dan­ger­ous; pow­er­ful; for­mi­da­ble\\". It does not con­vey the more mod­ern con­no­ta­tions...

    Mus­covy (Grand Duchy) re­mained a fairly un­known so­ci­ety in West­ern Eu­rope until Baron Sigis­mund von Her­ber­stein pub­lished his Rerum Moscoviticarum Com­men­tarii (lit­er­ally Notes on Mus­covite Affairs) in 1549. This pro­vided a broad view of what had been a rarely vis­ited and poorly re­ported state. In the 1630s, the Russ­ian Tsar­dom was vis­ited by Adam Olear­ius, whose lively and well-in­formed writ­ings were soon trans­lated into all the major lan­guages of Eu­rope.Fur­ther i...

    Dur­ing the late 1550s, Ivan de­vel­oped a hos­til­ity to­ward his ad­vis­ers, the gov­ern­ment, and the bo­yars. His­to­ri­ans have not de­ter­mined whether pol­icy dif­fer­ences, per­sonal an­i­mosi­ties, or men­tal im­bal­ance caused his wrath. In 1565 he di­vided Rus­sia into two parts: his pri­vate do­main (or oprich­n­ina) and the pub­lic realm (or zemshchina). For his pri­vate do­main, Ivan chose some of the most pros­per­ous and im­por­tant dis­tricts of Rus­sia. In these areas, Ivan'...

    Ivan IV was suc­ceeded by his son Feodor, who was men­tally de­fi­cient. Ac­tual power went to Feodor's brother-in-law, the boyar Boris Go­dunov (who is cred­ited with abol­ish­ing Yuri's Day, the only time of the year when serfs were free to move from one landowner to an­other). Per­haps the most im­por­tant event of Feodor's reign was the procla­ma­tion of the Pa­tri­ar­chate of Moscow in 1589. The cre­ation of the pa­tri­ar­chate cli­maxed the evo­lu­tion of a sep­a­rate and to­tally in­de...

    The im­me­di­ate task of the new dy­nasty was to re­store order. For­tu­nately for Rus­sia, its major en­e­mies, Poland and Swe­den, were en­gaged in a con­flict with each other, which pro­vided Rus­sia the op­por­tu­nity to make peace with Swe­den in 1617. The Pol­ish–Mus­covite War (1605–1618) was ended with the Truce of Deulino in 1618, restor­ing tem­porar­ily Pol­ish and Lithuan­ian rule over some ter­ri­to­ries, in­clud­ing Smolensk, lost by the Grand Duchy of Lithua­nia in 1509.The ear...

    The au­toc­racy sur­vived the Time of Trou­bles and the rule of weak or cor­rupt tsars be­cause of the strength of the gov­ern­ment's cen­tral bu­reau­cracy. Gov­ern­ment func­tionar­ies con­tin­ued to serve, re­gard­less of the ruler's le­git­i­macy or the boyar fac­tion con­trol­ling the throne. In the 17th cen­tury, the bu­reau­cracy ex­panded dra­mat­i­cally. The num­ber of gov­ern­ment de­part­ments (prikazy ; sing., prikaz ) in­creased from twenty-two in 1613 to eighty by mid-cen­tury....

    The Tsar­dom of Rus­sia con­tin­ued its ter­ri­to­r­ial growth through the 17th cen­tury. In the south­west, it claimed east­ern Ukraine's lands, which had been under Pol­ish–Lithuan­ian rule and sought as­sis­tance from the Tsar­dom to leave the rule of the Com­mon­wealth. The Za­porozhian Cos­sacks, war­riors or­ga­nized in mil­i­tary for­ma­tions, lived in the fron­tier areas bor­der­ing Poland, the Crimean Tatar lands. Al­though part of them was serv­ing in the Pol­ish army as Reg­is­tere...

    Rus­sia's south­west­ern ex­pan­sion, par­tic­u­larly its in­cor­po­ra­tion of east­ern Ukraine, had un­in­tended con­se­quences. Most Ukraini­ans were Or­tho­dox, but their close con­tact with the Roman Catholic Pol­ish also brought them West­ern in­tel­lec­tual cur­rents. Through the Ukrain­ian Acad­emy in Kiev, Rus­sia gained links to Pol­ish and Cen­tral Eu­ro­pean in­flu­ences and to the wider Or­tho­dox world. Al­though the Ukrain­ian link in­duced cre­ativ­ity in many areas, it also we...

    Rus­sia's east­ward ex­pan­sion en­coun­tered lit­tle re­sis­tance. In 1581 the Stroganov mer­chant fam­ily, in­ter­ested in the fur trade, hired a Cos­sack leader, Yer­mak Tim­o­feye­vich, to lead an ex­pe­di­tion into west­ern Siberia. Yer­mak de­feated the Khanate of Sibir and claimed the ter­ri­to­ries west of the Ob and Ir­tysh Rivers for Rus­sia.From such bases as Mangazeya, mer­chants, traders, and ex­plor­ers pushed east­ward from the Ob River to the Yeni­sei River, then on to the Len...

    Peter the Great (1672–1725), who be­came ruler in his own right in 1696, was des­tined to bring the Tsar­dom of Rus­sia, which had lit­tle con­tact with Eu­rope and was mostly seen as a re­gional power, into the main­stream of Eu­ro­pean cul­ture and pol­i­tics. After sup­press­ing nu­mer­ous re­bel­lions with con­sid­er­able blood­shed, Peter em­barked on a tour of West­ern Eu­rope incog­nito. He be­came im­pressed with what he saw and was awak­ened to the back­ward­ness of Rus­sia, a na­tio...

    There was no sin­gle flag dur­ing the Tsar­dom. In­stead, there were mul­ti­ple flags: 1. Standards used by the Tsar: 1. Standard of the Tsar of Moscow (1693–1700): white-blue-red tricolor with golden double-headed eagle in the center. Replaced by the Imperial standard in 1700 (see below). 2. Imperial Standard of the Tsar of Russia: black double-headed eagle carrying St. Vladimir Red Coat of Arms, on a golden rectangular field, adopted in 1700 instead of the older white-blue-red Standard of t...

    1. Grigory Kotoshikhin's Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (1665) is the indispensable source for those studying administration of the Russian tsardom 2. Domostroy is a 16th-century set of rules regulating everyday behaviour in the Russian boyar families.

    1. This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - Russia 2. Jarmo Kotilaine, Marshall Poe (ed.), Modernizing Muscovy: Reform and Social Change in Seventeenth Century Russia, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30751-1

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  5. List of wars involving Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_conflicts...

    Tsardom of Russia: 1547–1721: Russian Empire: 1721–1917: Russian Revolution (1917–1923) February Revolution • Provisional Government Russian Republic ...

  6. Territorial evolution of Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of...

    The name Russia for the Grand Duchy of Moscow started to appear in the late 15th century and had become common in 1547 when the Tsardom of Russia was created. For the history of Rus' and Moscovy before 1547 (see Kievan Rus' and Grand Duchy of Moscow).

  7. History of Russia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia

    The Mongols ruled until the 15th century. The tsardom of Russia and Russian empire were then created. Poland-Lithuania invaded Moscow, but Russia eventually drove them out. Russia expanded more west and east into Siberia. Napoleon tried to invade Russia during the winter but failed. Russia fought against Germany in WW1.

  8. Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia

    Coordinates. Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south.

  9. Tsar - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsardom
    • Overview
    • Meaning in Slavic languages
    • Bulgaria
    • Kievan Rus'
    • Serbia
    • Russia

    Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar or csar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally the Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards, much later a title for two rulers of the Serbian State, and from 1547 the supreme ruler of the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocracy or tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word caesar, which was intended

    The title tsar is derived from the Latin title for the Roman emperors, caesar. In comparison to the corresponding Latin word imperator, the Byzantine Greek term basileus was used differently depending on whether it was in a contemporary political context or in a historical or Biblical context. In the history of the Greek language, basileus had originally meant something like "potentate". It gradually approached the meaning of "king" in the Hellenistic Period, and it came to designate "emperor" a

    In 705 Emperor Justinian II named Tervel of Bulgaria "caesar", the first foreigner to receive this title, but his descendants continued to use Bulgar title "Kanasubigi". The sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the title "tsar" was actually adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I, following a makeshift imperial coronation performed by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 913. After an

    "Tsar" was used once by church officials of Kievan Rus' in the naming of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev. This may be connected to Yaroslav's war against Byzantium and to his efforts to distance himself from Constantinople. However, other princes of Kievan Rus' never styled themselves as tsars. Russian lands used the term tsar from 1547 when Knyaz Ivan IV the Terrible was officially crowned tsar of all Russia.

    The title of tsar was used officially by two monarchs, the previous monarchial title being that of king. In 1345, Stefan Dušan began to style himself "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks", and was crowned as such in Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly elevated Serbian patriarch, alongside the Bulgarian patriarch and archbishop of Ohrid. On the same occasion, he had his wife Helena of Bulgaria crowned as empress and his son associated in power as king. When Dušan died in 1355, his son Stefan Uroš ...

    The first Russian ruler to openly break with the khan of the Golden Horde, Mikhail of Tver, assumed the title "basileus of Rus" and "czar", more commonly spelled "tsar". Władysław IV of Poland was the tsar of Russia during the Time of Troubles, when the Polish forces occupied Moscow. Following his assertion of independence from the khan, "Veliki Kniaz" Ivan III of Muscovy started to use the title of tsar regularly in diplomatic relations with the West. From about 1480, he is designated as ...