Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech"), also Colloquial Latin, or Common Romance (particularly in the late stage), was a range of non-standard sociolects of Latin spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
This article examines aspects of the vocabulary of Vulgar Latin, an array of sociolects of spoken Latin that developed into all the various Romance languages.Alongside vocabulary attested in Standard Latin, the distinctive vocabulary of Vulgar Latin came from several sources.English meaningLatin formAncient instancesModern Romance inherited forms"all"omnis (the whole number, the entire)BothItalian/Friulian ogni, Sardinian (d)onzi"all"tōtus (the whole, not the part)BothFrench tout, Romansh tut, Friulian dut, Italian tutto, Sardinian tottu, Occitan/Catalan/Romanian tot, Aromanian tut, Spanish todo, Portuguese tudo/todo"altar"āraClassicalItalian ara, Portuguese ara, Galician ara"altar"altārium (diminutive)Vulgar, St. JeromeItalian altare, French autel, Portuguese/Galician/Spanish/Romanian/Catalan altar, but Galician/Portuguese outeiro 'hill, high place'.
Vulgar Latin, or Common Latin, is one of the two types of Latin.Latin is an old language that was spoken by the Romans.Vulgar Latin is not spoken anymore, but its many dialects eventually became what are now Romance languages (such as Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian).
- Sources of evidence
- Evidence of a distinctive language variety
- Extinction as a vernacular
British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods. While Britain formed part of the Roman Empire, Latin became the principal language of the elite, especially in the more Romanised south and east of the island. However, in the less Romanised north and west it never substantially replaced the Brittonic language of the indigenous Britons. In recent years, scholars have debated the extent to which British Latin was distinguishable
At the inception of Roman rule in AD 43, Great Britain was inhabited by the indigenous Britons, who spoke the Celtic language known as Brittonic. Britannia became a province of the Roman Empire and remained part of the empire for nearly four hundred years until 409, spanning at its height in 160 the southern three-quarters of the island of Britain. Historians often refer to Roman Britain as comprising a "highland zone" to the north and west of the country and a "lowland zone" in the south and ea
An inherent difficulty in evidencing Vulgar Latin is that as an extinct spoken language form, no source provides a direct account of it. Reliance is on indirect sources of evidence such as "errors" in written texts and regional inscriptions. They are held to be reflective of the everyday spoken language. Of particular linguistic value are private inscriptions made by ordinary people, such as epitaphs and votive offerings, and "curse tablets". In relation to Vulgar Latin specifically as it was sp
Kenneth Jackson argued for a form of British Vulgar Latin, distinctive from continental Vulgar Latin. In fact, he identified two forms of British Latin: a lower-class variety of the language not significantly different from Continental Vulgar Latin and a distinctive upper-class Vulgar Latin. This latter variety, Jackson believed, could be distinguished from Continental Vulgar Latin by 12 distinct criteria. In particular, he characterised it as a conservative, hypercorrect "school" Latin with a "
It is not known when Vulgar Latin ceased to be spoken in Britain, but it is likely that it continued to be widely spoken in various parts of Britain into the 5th century. In the lowland zone, Vulgar Latin was replaced by Old English during the course of the 5th and the 6th centuries, but in the highland zone, it gave way to Brittonic languages such as Primitive Welsh and Cornish. However, scholars have had a variety of views as to when exactly it died out as a vernacular. The question has been d
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To 184.108.40.206, who argues that Vulgar Latin is an Italic language separate from Latin, because it has different syntax from (literary) Latin: Latin is distinguished from other Italic languages not by syntax, but by consonant development. Vulgar Latin shows the same consonants as Latin, just with a few sound changes added on.
Latin (lingua latīna , IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome , known as Latium . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language in Italy , and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire . Latin has contributed many words to the ...
Vulgar Latin was the spoken language of the common people in the Roman Empire, while Classical Latin was the written language of the educated people, governance and clergy. See Vulgar Latin - Wikipedia.
Latín vulgar (en latín, sermo vulgaris) é un termo xenérico, empregado para se referir aos dialectos vernáculos do latín, falados fundamentalmente nas provincias occidentais do Imperio Romano. A súa extinción como lingua viva asociouse coa crecente diferenciación destes dialectos, que conduciu, no século IX , á formación das linguas ...
Le Latin de Grégoire de Tours. Hildesheim, Olms, 1968. OCLC 227211403; Eugenio COSERIU. El llamado latín vulgar y las primeras diferenciaciones romances: breve introducción a la lingüística románica., Universidad de la República, Montevideo, 1954. OCLC 559690750; Eugenio COSERIU. Estudios de lingüística románica.
Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains largely classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it. Some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular .