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  1. West Germanic languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › West_Germanic_languages

    This implies the same for West Germanic, whereas in East and North Germanic many of these alternations (in Gothic almost all of them) had been levelled out analogically by the time of the earliest texts. A common morphological innovation of the West Germanic languages is the development of a gerund.

  2. West Germanic languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › West_Germanic_languages

    From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The West Germanic Languages are a branch of Germanic languages first spoken in Central Europe and the British Isles. The branch has three parts: the North Sea Germanic languages, the Weser-Rhine Germanic languages, and the Elbe Germanic languages.

  3. Germanic languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Germanic_languages

    The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, English, is also the world's most widely spoken language with an estimated 2 billion speakers.

  4. Category:West Germanic languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Category:West_Germanic

    Category:West Germanic languages From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For a list of words relating to West Germanic languages, see the West Germanic languages category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The main article for this category is West Germanic languages.

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  5. List of Germanic languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_Germanic_languages

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is a part of the Indo-European language family. Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and individual languages. The standard division of Germanic is into three branches,

  6. Germanic languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Germanic_languages

    From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Germanic languages are a branch of Indo-European languages. They came from one language, Proto-Germanic, which was first spoken in Scandinavia in the Iron Age. They are spoken by around 515 million people natively.

  7. West Flemish - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › West_Flemish

    West Flemish (West-Vlams or West-Vloams or Vlaemsch (in French-Flanders), Dutch: West-Vlaams, French: flamand occidental) is a West Germanic language spoken in western Belgium and the neighboring areas of France and Netherlands.

  8. North Germanic languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › North_Germanic_languages
    • Overview
    • Modern languages and dialects
    • History
    • Classification

    The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. The term "North Germanic languages" is used in comparative linguistics, whereas...

    The modern languages and their dialects in this group are: 1. Danish Jutlandic dialect North Jutlandic East Jutlandic West Jutlandic South Jutlandic Insular Danish Bornholmsk dialect 2. Swedish South Swedish dialects Scanian Göta dialects Gotland dialects Svea dialects Norrland dialects Jämtland dialects East Swedish dialects Finland Swedish Estonian Swedish 3. Dalecarlian dialects Elfdalian 4. Norwegian Bokmål Nynorsk Trønder dialects East Norwegian dialects West Norwegian dialects ...

    The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible to some degree during the Migration Period, so

    The North Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations shared with West Germanic: 1. The retraction of Proto-Germanic ē to ā. Proto-Germanic *jērą 'year' > Northwest Germanic *jārą, whence North Germanic *āra > Old Norse ...

    Some innovations are not found in West and East Germanic, such as: 1. Sharpening of geminate /jj/ and /ww/ according to Holtzmann's law Occurred also in East Germanic, but with a different outcome. Proto-Germanic *twajjǫ̂ > Old Norse tveggja, Gothic twaddjē, but > Old ...

    In historical linguistics, the North Germanic family tree is divided into two main branches, West Scandinavian languages and East Scandinavian languages, along with various dialects and varieties. The two branches are derived from the western and eastern dialect groups of Old Norse respectively. There was also an Old Gutnish branch spoken on the island of Gotland. The continental Scandinavian languages were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the period of Hanseatic expansion. Another

  9. Northwest Germanic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Northwest_Germanic
    • Overview
    • History and terminology
    • Dating
    • Shared innovations
    • Alternative groupings

    Northwest Germanic is a proposed grouping of the Germanic languages, representing the current consensus among Germanic historical linguists. It does not challenge the late 19th-century tri-partite division of the Germanic dialects into North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic, but proposes additionally that North and West Germanic remained as a subgroup after the southward migration of the East Germanic tribes, only splitting into North and West Germanic later. Whether this subgroup const

    This grouping was proposed by Hans Kuhn as an alternative to the older view of a Gotho-Nordic versus West Germanic division. This older view is represented by mid 20th-century proposals to assume the existence by 250 BC of five general groups to be distinguishable: North Germanic in Southern Scandinavia excluding Jutland; North Sea Germanic along the middle Rhine and Jutland; Rhine-Weser Germanic; Elbe Germanic; and East Germanic. The Northwest Germanic theory challenges these proposals, since i

    Most scholars agree that East Germanic broke up from the rest of the languages in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. The Runic Inscriptions may mean that the north and West broke up in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The Migration Period started around the 4th and 5th centuries; an event which probably help diversify the Northwest Germanic languages even more. The date by which such a grouping must have dissolved—in that innovations ceased to be shared—is also contentious, though it seems unlikely ...

    The evidence for Northwest Germanic is constituted by a range of common linguistic innovations in phonology, morphology, word formation and lexis in North and West Germanic, though in fact there is considerable debate about which innovations are significant. An additional problem is that Gothic, which provides almost the sole evidence of the East Germanic dialects, is attested much earlier than the other Germanic languages, with the exception of a few runic inscriptions. This means that direct c

    Postulated common innovations in North Germanic and Gothic, which therefore challenge the Northwest Germanic hypothesis, include

  10. Proto-Germanic language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Proto-Germanic_language

    Proto-Germanic eventually developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three Germanic branches during the fifth century BC to fifth century AD: West Germanic, East Germanic and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic.

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