Enroute Charts Enroute Low and High Altitude charts provide aeronautical information for instrument navigation in the low and high airway structure of the Canadian Domestic Airspace, the airspace over foreign territory and international waters in which Canada accepts responsibility for the provision of air traffic services and other areas required
The Enroute Low and High altitude charts provide aeronautical information for instrument navigation in the low and high airway structures. Enroute Low and High Altitude charts provide aeronautical information for instrument navigation in the low and high airway structure of the Canadian Domestic Airspace, the airspace... over foreign territory and international waters in which Canada accepts ...
- Northern and Southern Domestic Airspace
- Altimeter Regions
- Flight Information Regions
- Airspace Classes
- Control Zones
- Mountainous Areas
Canadian Airspace is divided into two fundamental areas: Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA) and Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA). The division has a few important rules: While the proper cruising altitude in the SDA is based on magnetic track, cruising altitude in the NDA is based on true track(discussed below). Additionally, runway headings are also based on magnetic track in the SDA, while true track is used in the NDA. Finally, rules for altimeter settings are also based on the SDA/NDA division. Generally, NDA consists of airspace located north of Inuvik, Yellowknife, Churchill, Ivujvik and Iqaluit.
For altimeter use, the Southern Domestic Airspace is referred to as the Altimeter Setting Regionwhere the altimeter must be continually set to the nearest reported altimeter setting. Here are the rules that apply to the Altimeter Setting Region: 1. Before takeoff, the altimeter must be set to the airport reported setting, or, if not available, the airport elevation. 2. During flight, it must be set to the setting of the nearest reporting station (Flight Service Station or control tower). 3. Prior to landing, it must be set to the destination airport if available. In contrast,Northern Domestic Airspace is referred to as the Standard Pressure Region, where it is required that the Altimeter be set to 29.92”Hg—known as standard pressure. The exceptions to this is prior to descent for landing and before taking off, when the airport setting (or elevation) must be set. When standard pressure is used by the pilot, he must refer to his altitude as flight level. Accordingly, an altitude of 55...
Canadian Airspace is composed of seven Flight Information Regions (FIRs). Their function is to provide flight information and alerting services within their defined boundaries. With respect to IFR flight, however, the immediate role of FIRs is the administration of Area Control Centres. Thus while the Vancouver Area Control Centreoversees all IFR flights in controlled airspace within the Vancouver FIR, Edmonton Control Centre provides the same services for the Edmonton FIR, etc. FIR boundaries are marked on IFR en route charts.
Canadian Airspace is further divided into seven classes, each providing individual rules of access, flight regulations, and Air Traffic Control (ATC) responsibility. The characteristic of the seven classes may be summarised as follows:
Control Zones surround specified airports indicated on charts that have a control tower. They usually have a 7 NM (nautical mile) radius and extend from the surface to 3000’ AAE (above aerodrome elevation). The may be designated Class B, C, D or E airspace. Control Zones are the only form of controlled airspace that extend to the ground.
There are five Mountainous Areas in Canada as depicted above. They are specifically defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook. Except where provided by specified minimum IFR altitudes published on charts and IFR approach and departure plates (e.g., minimum vectoring attitudes, MOCAs, transition altitudes, 100 NM safe altitudes, MSAs, and AMAs),5 an aircraft operating IFR in Mountainous Areas 1 and 5 must maintain a minimum altitude of 2000’ above the highest obstacle within a 5 NM radius. In all other Mountainous Areas, the minimum altitude is 1500’ above the highest obstacle within 5 NM. Owing to temperature and pressure-induced errors in the indicated altimeter, when tracking airways in mountainous areas, IFR aircraft should operate at least 1000’ above the published airway altitude when there are large variations in temperature and/or temperature.6
1Defined on charts. 2The 700’ base can be remembered here as the word “transit” has 7 letters—thank Henry Methorst for that one. 3 A third condition for Class F IFR operations, not discussed here, concerns an Altitude Reservation Approval. See AIP RAC 2.8.6 for information on this. 4These are two types of approach clearances issued to an IFR aircraft for the purpose of conducting an approach using visual reference to ground. When the clearances are issued, the pilot can deviate from published instrument procedures. 5These will be review later in the course in reference to minimum IFR altitudes. 6 See AIMRAC 8.5)
- Documentation / Certification
- Communications Issues
- Navigation Issues
- Temperature Issues
- Polar Radiation
- Alternate Airports
[Advisory Circular 120-42B, ¶601.] 1. The North Polar Area is defined as the entire area north of latitude 78 degrees North. 2. The South Polar Area is defined as the entire area south of latitude 60 degrees South. The worst magnetic compass performance is probably in the center of the Northern Control Area, home to the magnetic North Pole. This position creates a notch in the circle of magnetic unreliability, often called a "key hole." Charts should be checked for the presence of a "T" denot...
[Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual, ¶ 2.6] 1. Controlled airspace within the High Level Airspace is divided into three separate areas. They are the Southern Control Area (SCA), the Northern Control Area (NCA) and the Arctic Control Area (ACA). 2. Pilots are reminded that both the NCA and the ACA are within the Northern Domestic Airspace; therefore, compass indications may be erratic, and true tracks are used in determining the flight level at which to fly. In addition, the airs...
[14 CFR 135, §135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area.] After February 15, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate operations wholly within the state of Alaska, unless authorized by the FAA. The certificate holder's operation specifications must include the following: 1. The designation of airports that may be used for en-route diversions and the requirements the airports must meet at the time of diversion. 2. Except for all-cargo operations, a recovery plan for passengers at designated diversion airports. 3. A fuel-freeze strategy and procedures for monitoring fuel freezing for operations in the North Polar Area. 4. A plan to ensure communication capability for operations in the North Polar Area. 5. An MEL for operations in the North Polar Area. 6. A training plan for operations in the North Polar Area. 7. A plan for mitigating crew exposure to radiation during solar flare activity. 8. A...
[Advisory Circular 135-42, Appendix 3, ¶3.f.] Certificate holders must have at least two cold weather anti-exposure suit(s) for the crewmembers on the airplane if outside coordination by a crewmember at a diversion airport with extreme climatic conditions is determined to be necessary. The certificate holder may be relieved of this requirement based on seasonal temperatures that would render the use of such suits unnecessary. This determination must be made with concurrence of the CHDO. This isn't much of a list; you would be wise to consider adding the requirements of Advisory Circular 120-42B, which do not restrict 14 CFR 135 and 91, but offer sound operating practices. [Advisory Circular 120-42B, ¶603.b.(5)] 1. Fuel quantity indicating system (FQIS), including the fuel tank temperature indicating system; 2. APU (when the APU is necessary for an airplane to comply with ETOPS requirements), including electrical and pneumatic supply to its designed capability, 3. Autothrottle system...
[Advisory Circular 135-42, Appendix 3, ¶3.e.] Before conducting polar operations, certificate holders must ensure that flight crewmembers are trained on any applicable passenger recovery plan used in this operation. Certificate holders should also ensure that flight crewmembers are trained on the following items, which should be included in a certificate holder's approved training programs: (1) Atmospheric pressure at Field Elevation/Barometric pressure for Local Altimeter Setting and meter/feet conversion issues (flight crewmember training). (2) Training requirements for fuel freeze (maintenance and flight crewmember training). (3) General polar-specific training on weather patterns and aircraft system limitations(flight crewmember training). (4) Proper use of the cold weather anti-exposure suit, if required (flight crewmember training). (5) Radiation exposure (see AC 120-61A, In-Flight Radiation Exposure). [FAA Order 8900, Volume 4, Chapter 1, §5, ¶4-103.D.] The following must be...
There is some VHF radio coverage, denoted on en route charts.
HF Frequencies and CPDLC addresses also appear on en route charts. [FAA Order 8900, Volume 4, Chapter 1, §5, ¶4-103.B.(2)] High frequency (HF) voice has been considered the primary communications medium in the North Polar Area. However, other mediums may be used as a supplemental means in accordance with the applicable policy. For example, although HF voice remains primary for communications with Anchorage Center, in areas where there is satellite coverage, satellite communication (SATCOM) vo...
SATCOM / CPDLC
[FAA Order 8900, Volume 4, Chapter 1, §5, ¶4-103.B.(3)] In areas of satellite coverage, Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) may be used for ATC communications, provided the ATS unit has an approved capability. In addition, provided the capability is approved, HF datalink may also be used to fulfill communications requirements with ATS units having the capability and with airline dispatch. Inspectors must ensure the operators meet the regulatory (14 CFR part 1) and policy require...
Magnetic Variation and Convergence of the Meridians
[FAA Order 8900, Volume 4, Chapter 1, §5, ¶4-102.] 1. Conventional magnetic compasses sense magnetic direction by detecting the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. Since this horizontal component vanishes near the magnetic poles, magnetic compasses are highly unreliable and unusable in an area approximately 1,000 NM from each magnetic pole. Within these areas, air navigation tasks are further complicated by very rapid changes in magnetic variation over small distances. For exa...
Navigating near the poles presents several issues not found anywhere else in the world. Because of these issues, the only acceptable method of navigating through the NCA and high latitude region is through the use of long-range navigation systems using inertial and GPS based FMS systems referenced to True North only. Other methods of navigation in the NCA are impractical or unreliable because of the inherent limitations of magnetic compasses near the magnetic and geographic North Poles, and b...
Each GPS satellite traces a track over the earth from 55° North to 55° South every twelve hours. At their maximum latitudes they are actually "looking down" on the poles: Of course you have no guarantee you will have at least one satellite that high in its orbit. In order to have line of sight on the pole, a satellite would have to be at least 39° latitude: I've not found anything in writing that tells you there will always be at least four satellites above 39° North and 39° South, but it app...
Tropopause Height and ISA
[Geerts and Linacre] 1. The height of the tropopause depends on the location, notably the latitude, as shown in the figure on the right (which shows annual mean conditions). It also depends on the season. 2. At latitudes above 60°, the tropopause is less than 9-10 km above sea level; the lowest is less than 8 km high, above Antarctica and above Siberia and northern Canada in winter. The highest average tropopause is over the oceanic warm pool of the western equatorial Pacific, about 17.5 km h...
If a descent into lower altitudes is required, fuel freezing and other aircraft systems limitations can become issues. If an emergency landing is required, surface temperatures can be life threatening. See: Fuel Freezing, and Minimum Equipment List.
[Advisory Circular 135-42, Appendix 3, ¶3.c.] Fuel Freeze Strategy and Monitoring Requirements for Polar Operations. Certificate holders must develop a fuel freeze strategy and procedures for monitoring fuel freezing for operations in the North Polar Area. A fuel freeze analysis program in lieu of using the standard minimum fuel freeze temperatures for specific types of fuel may be used. In such cases, the certificate holder's fuel freeze analysis and monitoring program for the airplane fuel...
[Advisory Circular 120-61A, ¶6.] Radiation received on a lower-latitude flight will be lower because of the greater amount of radiation shielding provided by the earth's magnetic field. This shielding is maximum near the equator and gradually decreases to zero as one goes north or south. Radiation levels over the polar regions are about twice those over the equator at the same altitudes. [NASA Study, Michael Finneran] 1. Space radiation on the ground is very low, but increases significantly with altitude. At 30,000 to 40,000 feet, the typical altitude of a jetliner, exposure on a typical flight is still considered safe – less than a chest X-ray. 2. Exposure is considerably higher, however, over the Earth's poles, where the planet's magnetic field no longer provides any shielding. And with a thousand-fold rise in commercial airline flights over the North Pole in the last 10 years, exposure to radiation has become a serious concern. 3. A study by Mertens of polar flights during a sola...
[Advisory Circular 135-42, Appendix 3, ¶3.a.] Before each flight, certificate holders must designate alternate airports that can be used in case an en route diversion is necessary. The airplane should have a reasonable assurance that the weather during periods when the certificate holder would need the services of the airport are within the operating limits of the airplane. The airplane should be able to make a safe landing and maneuver off the runway at the diversion airport. In addition, those airports identified for use during an en route diversion should be capable of protecting the safety of all personnel by allowing: (1) Safe offload of passengers and crewmember during possible adverse weather conditions; (2) Providing for the physiological needs of the passengers and crewmember until a safe evacuation is completed; and (3) Safe extraction of passengers and crewmember as soon as possible (execution and completion of the recovery should be within 12 to 48 hours following landin...
People also ask
What are the different types of Canadian airspace?
What are the classes of airspace in Canada?
What is the minimum width of an airway?
What are the types of airports in Canada?
Class B airspace is all controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet MSL or the MEA, whichever is higher, within which only IFR and controlled VFR flights are permitted.
Flight 9 departed Winnipeg at 08:58 in clear weather and climbed to a cruising altitude of 6,000 feet. While flying westbound at an airspeed of 189 knots and tracking the Green One airway the C-4 North Star crew reported their position over Regina, Saskatchewan at 09:52. This was the last radio transmission from Flight 9.
If a VFR conditions-on-top altitude is provided, it must be entered as “OTP/XXX where “XXX” is a VFR altitude. Blocked altitudes are indicated by entering the lower altitude of the requested block, the letter “B,” and the higher altitude of the block; for example, 80B100, 240B270, with no spaces.
Canadian Airspace is divided into two fundamental areas: Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA) and Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA). The division has a few important rules: While the proper cruising altitude in the SDA is based on magnetic track, cruising altitude in the NDA is based on true track (discussed below).
1. The VOR and L/MF Airway System consists of airways designated from 1,200 feet above the surface (or in some instances higher) up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. These airways are depicted on Enroute Low Altitude Charts.
All low level controlled airspace above 12500' ASL or at and above the MEA (Minimum En route Altitude), whichever is HIGHTER, up to but not incl. 18000' ASL. Examples: - Aircraft flying on a LLA at 15000' ASL with a MEA of 14000' ASL is in Class B airspace as it is flying above it's MEA.