- Baroque art began in Rome, Italy in the early 17th century and remained a prevalent style for more than a century. Baroque art was a dramatic and grandeur style that was incorporated in various disciplines such as architecture, music, paintings, and sculpture. The popularity of the art resulted in a movement that spread in most of Europe.
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- Overview of The Baroque Style-
- History and Development-
- Notable Artists and Their Works-
- Decline and Subsequent Successors-
The Baroque art was exuberant and dramatic, and it incorporated precise detail and exaggerated motion in the disciplines of painting, sculpture, music, dance, and architecture. The Baroque Style was designed to appeal to the senses and used iconography that was direct, dramatic and obvious. The most common technique of the Baroque Style is the chiaroscuro trait, which employed the interplay between dark and light to form a highly contrast and dramatic atmosphere. The art rapidly developed with support from the Catholic Church, and until its decline, it was associated with grandeur, vitality, drama and sensuality.
The background to the popularity of the Baroque Style began in the early 1500’s, when the Protestant Reformation, championed by Martin Luther, began to take root in Europe. Protestant denominations questioned some doctrines propagated by the Catholic Church, such as salvation by faith alone. The Council of Trent was subsequently convened to draft counter-reformation steps. The Catholic Church moved to re-assert itself in the religious landscape and needed to educate the masses on its doctrines, most of whom were illiterate. The Council of Trent resolved to use art as a tool for education, particularly art that was emotionally intense, dramatic and direct. The necessity for powerfully designed art by the Catholic Church inspired Baroque Style. The style inspired many artists across Europe and was used in paintings such as on ceilings and vaults of churches and palaces. Baroque architecture was incorporated in palaces, domes and bold spaces. The style was manifested differently in Eur...
One of the most famous Baroque architects was Bernini who designed St. Peter’s Square in Rome. He ringed the square with impressive colonnades to evoke the feeling of being welcomed by the arms of the Catholic Church. The Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens is renowned for various paintings as the’ Four Continents’ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents.' Peter alongside other Baroque painters as Caravaggio and Giovanni Bernini were famed for using clear dramatic, vivid imagery to mostly convey religious themes. Bernini is mostly famed for the painting of ‘St. Theresa in ecstasy’. Baroque music composers include George Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach.
After enjoying massive success throughout Europe, Baroque style began its decline at the end of the 17th century. The decline coincided with the decline of Italy, which was the style’s cradle. In its place came the Rococo Style, championed by Francewhich was the new European power. The Baroque style had been criticized as not being sincere, and the French developed the Rococo style as a resistance to the strict regulations of the Baroque Style.
The Baroque Style inspired the Beaux-Arts architecture style that developed in the 19th century and which was used in some modern buildings. The Baroque Style resulted in some majestic landmarks in modern Europe such as the St. Peters Square in Rome, Castellana in Malta, Queluz National Palace in Portugal, Royal Palace of La Granja in Spain, Parish Church of St. Anne in Budapest and St. George’s Cathedral in Romania.
- Baroque Art Characteristics
- Origin of Baroque Art
- Relevance of Baroque Art
- Baroque Art Architecture
- Baroque Art Representatives
- Examples of Outstanding Works
Among the main characteristics and features that we can observe in Baroque art we can mention the following. 1. It seeks to represent inner feelings, passions, ways of thinking and different emotions. 2. Its themes include religious topicsthat had been abandoned by Renaissance. 3. It has sense of movement, energy and tension. 4. Lights and shadows of this art have strong contrasts. 5. His spiritualityis intense and based on martyrdom and apparitions. 6. He tries to represent space and perspectivein a correct way. 7. His paintings are based on naturalism. 8. The themes of Baroque sculpture are profane and mythological. 9. They used nudescontinuously giving them a lot of importance. 10. It has strength and monumentality, dynamism and expressiveness.
The baroque art originated first in the field of plastic arts and then extended to literature, theater and music. It had its origin in Italy during the seventeenth century and managed to spread to places such as Belgium, Holland and even Latin America, where it was introduced by artists who traveled on expeditions from Europe. Art emerged within a political and religious setting in Europe expressing the spirituality and the theocentrismof the Middle Ages, using rationalism and Anthropocentrism of the Renaissance.
We can say that Baroque art began in the 1600s and lasted until 1750, in the middle of what we know as the Renaissance and Neoclassical period, a period in which Catholicism in Europe reacted against different cultural movements leading to a new science and a new religion; the Protestant Reformation. When corruption entered the Catholic Church, they realized that art could be used as a means of publicity and control of ideas, so they hired artists to satisfy their faithful through drama. As an art style, it emerged at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries in Italyand then spread throughout Europe.
This is one of the most important periods in Western history as it contributed to the construction of European identity which was looking for a way out of classicism from the Renaissance. In addition, it played an important role in all the religious conflicts that were taking place at that time, as the Protestants were confronted with those who constructed simple and humble buildings for religious services with elegant, majestic and complex constructions; it can be said that Baroque art acted as the aesthetic expression of the Counter Reformation.
In architecture, curved lines were adopted instead of straight lines to achieve a greater degree of dynamism and expressiveness. For them, the facades were very important, and they decorated them with great decorations using cornices and Greek and Roman columns. It can be said that it was an architectural style of decoration. The temples were built using circular floors instead of straight ones. In Spain, it was introduced at the end of the 16th century, but poor and shaded materials were used. During Baroque period, Baroque art progressed and was filled with ornaments removing Herrerian elements.
Full of decorations with great movement and dynamism, the images showed violent and exalted passions. It introduced different religious and moral contents that changed the way people express themselves. Religious themes predominated, they made realism one of their main characteristics, and they created images dressed with lots of details. The main client of baroque sculpture was Catholic church and then, the court. Made mainly of polychromed wood, their works are used in the Holy Weekcelebrations.
It was characterized by its figures filled with chiaroscuro and expression. They used oil painting because it gave them greater brightness and different colors, viscosity and qualities. The canvas was the favorite material of Baroque painters and the linear and symmetrical tendency was lost, because the artists used more freedomin their colors and movements. They painted subjects such as landscapes, still life and men, depending on the criteria of each artistic movement.Diego de Velázquez, who was one of the most important representatives of the world.Caravagio, Italian painter considered the first baroque exponent.
Some of the main works of Baroque art are: 1. Saint Peter of the Vatican 2. Palace of Versailles 3. Santa Capilla, Basilica of Pilar 4. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa 5. Fountain of the four rivers 6. Christ Lying 7. The three graces 8. The round of the night
May 03, 2021 · in Art History T he Baroque period developed after the Renaissance and Mannerism art periods. It brought with it new perspectives about life, art, religion, and culture. The Baroque style moved away from the severe elements depicted by the Protestant style.
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For details of the development of Baroque art outside Italy, see: Flemish Baroque (c.1600-80), Dutch Baroque (c.1600-80) and Spanish Baroque (1600-1700). By the end of the 17th century the grand Baroque style was in decline, as was its principal sponsor, Italy.
This highly embellished style was coined Baroque and became marked by its innovative techniques and details, delivering a lush new visual language into what had been a relatively toned down period for art. Baroque disseminated throughout Europe, primarily led by the Pope in Rome and Catholic rulers in Italy, France, Spain, and Flanders.
- Characteristics of The Baroque Art
- Inspirations of Baroque Art
- History of The Baroque Art
The period of the baroque art corresponds itself to 4 main characteristics that are the Tenebrism, Realism, Lines and Hour.
For accomplishing its scandalous part, the baroque art, stimulated by Catholic religion, tended to be a piece of public art itself in a big scale, like monumental murals and fresh painting in huge rooftops and vaults of palaces and churches. It has been previously mentioned how the baroque art was highly influenced by religion and church; the paintings are the ones to especially exemplify crucial elements of the catholic doctrine, whether it be directly in biblical pieces, or indirectly in mythological or allegoric compositions. Along with this high and epic tactic, the desire to create movement within the works was shared by plenty (if not all) of the era’s painters, and with this in mind, it was typical for them to use gyrating spirals and rising diagonals, as well as solid and ostentatious color structures, for amazement and brightness. As well, new techniques of Tenebrism and clear-obscure were advanced for refining the atmosphere, accompanying the soft and wide brush, usually r...
After the Trento’s Council voicing about how the baroque art could support the religion, along with the solidification of the trust upon the Roman Catholic Church, it became evident that it was necessary a new style of biblical art for backing up the catholic Counter Reformation and completely convey to the European congregation the miracles and sufferings of the Saints. This new technique required to be more animated, expressive and lightened with a bigger realism. Powerfully motivated by the Jesuits’ points of view, the architecture, the painting and the sculpture had to work together for creating a unified effect; this is why he baroque is occasionally called “The Jesuit Style”. The original push came from the arrival of Annibale Carracci and Carravaggio (1571-1610) to Rome during the decade of the 1590. Their attendance sparkled up a new interest in the realism, as well as in the old forms, both alleged and progressed by Alessandro Algardi (in sculpture) and Bernini (in sculptur...
Without a doubt, the baroque art is a unique style that showed a “before and after” within the art world. Its innovations within the past centuries shows a quick and bold evolving, as well as the display of ideas by several great, illustrated and creative minds; all of them working at their maximum for achieving the ultimate, reachable level of perfection for this works. All disciplines within the baroque art deserve to be highlighted by their excellence, filling the world with such a bright and delicate but courageous beauty, just as everything that has come since the baroque period. There are no doubts about why it is so admired nowadays and the works of great personalities are still preserved and recognized.
In its most typical manifestations, Baroque art is characterized by great drama, rich, deep colour, and intense light and dark shadows, but the classicism of French Baroque painters like Poussin and Dutch genre painters such as Vermeer are also covered by the term, at least in English.
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