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  1. How Vlad Dracula Defeated the Turks by Impaling Them, Part II ...

    historyaddicted.com/vlad-dracula-defeated-turks...

    Yet, in 1456, the revolving door of Walachian rulers turned again. The Hungarians, upset at the unexpectly pro-turkish policies of the man they had just put on the throne made, Vlad a deal. You can have your father’s throne back, but you answer to us.

  2. Ottoman-Hungarian Wars: Siege of Belgrade in 1456

    www.historynet.com/ottoman-hungarian-wars-siege...

    Dracul’s son, then held as a hostage by the Turks, would succeed his father as voivode in September 1456. Called Prince Vlad Tepes (the Impaler), he put 20,000 persons to death during the six years between 1456 and 1462. He refused tribute to the sultan, repeatedly defeated the Turks, and, as his name suggests, impaled his prisoners.

  3. Siege of Belgrade (1456) | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Belgrade_(1456)
    • Preparations
    • Siege
    • Battle
    • Aftermath
    • Noon Bell
    • Follow Up
    • Literature
    • References

    At the end of 1455, after a public reconciliation with all his enemies,[Clarification needed] A Franciscan friar allied with Hunyadi, Giovanni da Capistrano, preached a crusade to attract peasants and yeomanry to Hunyadi's cause. The recruits were ill-armed (many with only slings and scythes) but full of enthusiasm. The recruits flocked to the standard of Hunyadi, the core of which consisted of a small band of seasoned mercenaries and a few banderia of noble horsemen. All in all, Hunyadi managed to build a force of 25–30,000 men.

    However, before these forces could be assembled, Mehmed II's invasion army (160,000 men in early accounts, 60-70,000 according to newer research) arrived at Belgrade. On July 4, 1456, the siege began. Szilágyi could rely on a force of only 5,000-7,000 men in the castle. Mehmed set up his siege on the neck of the headland and started firing on the walls on June 29. He arrayed his men in three sections. The Rumelian (that is, European) corps had the majority of his 300 cannons, and his fleet of 200 or so river vessels had the rest. The Rumelians were arrayed on the right wing and the Anatolian corps was arrayed on the left. In the middle were the sultan's personal guards, the janissaries, and his command post. The Anatolian corps and the janissaries were both heavy infantry troops. Mehmed posted his river vessels mainly to the northwest of the city to patrol the marshes and ensure that the fortress was not reinforced. They also kept an eye on the Sava to the southwest to avoid the inf...

    The next day something unexpected happened. By some accounts, the peasant crusaders started a spontaneous action, and forced Capistrano and Hunyadi to make use of the situation. Despite Hunyadi's orders to the defenders not to try to loot the Ottoman positions, some of the units crept out from demolished ramparts, took up positions across from the Ottoman line, and began harassing enemy soldiers. Ottoman spahis (provincial cavalry) tried without success to disperse the harassing force. At once, more Christians joined those outside the wall. What began as an isolated incident quickly escalated into a full-scale battle. John of Capistrano at first tried to order his men back inside the walls, but soon found himself surrounded by about 2,000 Crusaders. He then began leading them toward the Ottoman lines, crying, "The Lord who made the beginning will take care of the finish!" Capistrano led his crusaders to the Ottoman rear across the Sava river. At the same time, Hunyadi started a desp...

    However, the Hungarians paid dearly for this victory. Plague broke out in the camp, from which John Hunyadi himself died three weeks later (August 11, 1456). He was buried in the Cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia), the capital of Transylvania. As the design of the fortress had proved its merits during the siege, some additional reinforcements were made by the Hungarians. The weaker eastern walls, where the Ottomans broke through into the upper town were reinforced by the Zindan gate and the heavy Nebojsa tower. This was the last of the great modifications to the fortress until 1521 when Sultan Süleymaneventually captured it.

    Pope Callixtus III ordered the bells of every European church to be rung every day at noon, as a call for believers to pray for the defenders of the city. The practice of the noon bell is traditionally attributed to the international commemoration of the victory at Belgrade and to the order of Pope Callixtus III, since in many countries (like England and the Spanish Kingdoms) news of the victory arrived before the order, and the ringing of the church bells at noon was thus transformed into a commemoration of the victory.The Pope didn't withdraw the order, and Catholic and the older Protestant churches still ring the noon bell to this day. The custom still exists even among Protestant and Orthodox congregations. In the history of Oxford university, the victory was welcomed with the ringing of bells and great celebrations in England. Hunyadi sent a special courier (among others), Erasmus Fullar, to Oxford with the news of the victory.

    The victory stopped the Ottoman advance towards Catholic Europe for 70 years, though they made other incursions such as the taking of Otranto in 1480–1481 and the raid of Croatia and Styriain 1493. Belgrade would continue to protect Hungary from Ottoman attacks until the fort fell to the Ottomans in 1521. After the Siege of Belgrade stopped the advance of Mehmed II towards Central Europe, Serbia and Bosnia were absorbed into the Empire. Wallachia, the Tartar Khanate of Crimea, and eventually Moldavia were merely converted into vassal states thanks to strong military resistance to Mehmed's attempts at conquest. There were several reasons why the sultan did not directly attack Hungary and why he gave up the idea of advancing in that direction after his unsuccessful siege of Belgrade. The mishap at Belgrade indicated that the Empire could not expand further until Serbia and Bosnia were transformed into a secure base of operations. Furthermore, the significant political and military pow...

    In Dracula: Prince of Many Faces, by Raymond T. McNally and Radu Florescu, it is claimed that Mehmed wanted to reconquer Belgrade in order to gain access to Hungary through the Danube River but was prevented from doing so by a humiliating defeat by Vlad III at The Night Attack. The sultan later came into conflict with Stephen III of Moldavia, resulting in an even worse defeat at Battle of Vaslui and later a pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Valea Albă. Taking into account his aggressive ambition and statements suggesting he dreamed of world conquest, most historians agree that Mehmed the Conqueror was initially interested in occupying Hungary and expanding as far into Europe as possible but was thwarted by the defeat at Belgrade and contained by Matthias' military strength as well as fierce resistance by Vlachvassals. As McNally and Florescu put it, the sultan "planned to strike at the pillars of European civilization and bring it tumbling down under his control."

    ^ Pope Calixtus III account from August 14, 1456 to the Burgundian bishop talking about the saviour of Christianity at Belgrade
  4. Ottoman–Hungarian wars - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman–Hungarian_Wars

    On July 14, 1456 the flotilla assembled by Hunyadi destroyed the Ottoman fleet. On July 21, Szilágyi's forces in the fortress repulsed a fierce assault by the Rumelian army, and Hunyadi pursued the retreating forces into their camp, taking advantage of the Turkish army's confused flight from the city.

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  6. Romania - The Ottoman Invasions

    countrystudies.us/romania/8.htm

    Hunyadi, a hero of the Ottoman wars, mobilized Hungary against the Turks, equipping a mercenary army funded by the first tax ever levied on Hungary's nobles. He scored a resounding victory over the Turks before Belgrade in 1456, but died of plague soon after the battle.

  7. Who was Vlad the Impaler, the original Dracula?

    www.zmescience.com/science/vlad-the-impaler-history

    Aug 14, 2018 · Vlad the Impaler died in the field fighting against the Ottomans. Accounts say that such was the Turks’ hatred of the voivode that they cut his corpse into pieces after the battle.

  8. 15th Century (1400-1499) C.E. - Islamic Web

    www.islamicweb.com/history/century15.htm

    In the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey. 1456: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia. 1461: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad.

  9. Vlad the Impaler - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_the_Impaler

    Vlad II Dracul seized Wallachia after the death of his half-brother Alexander I Aldea in 1436. One of his charters (which was issued on 20 January 1437) preserved the first reference to Vlad III and his elder brother, Mircea, mentioning them as their father's "first born sons".

  10. Giovanni Capistrano

    who_christianity.enacademic.com/392/Giovanni...

    (1386–1456) Missionary and Saint. Giovanni was born in Capistrano in Italy. He studied law at the University of Perugia and in 1412 he married and was appointed Governor of Naples. While a prisoner of war, he had a vision of St francis of…

  11. Vlad the Impaler: The real Dracula was absolutely ... - NBC News

    www.nbcnews.com/sciencemain/vlad-impaler-real...

    Oct 31, 2013 · Vlad III was born in 1431 in Transylvania, a mountainous region in modern-day Romania.His father was Vlad II Dracul, ruler of Wallachia, a principality located to the south of Transylvania. Vlad ...