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      • Their attempts to exploit the simmering religious conflict in Germany, which found its expression in the foundation of the Protestant Union, led by the Palatinate, in 1608 and the Catholic League (Liga), led by Bavaria, in 1609, were bound to undermine peace and stability.
      www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/thirty-years-war#:~:text=Their attempts to exploit the simmering religious conflict,1609, were bound to undermine peace and stability.
  1. People also ask

    Who was the leader of the Calvinists in Germany?

    Who was the leader of the Protestant Union?

    What is the Catholic League?

    Why was the Catholic Confederation formed?

  2. Catholic League (German) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_League_(German)

    The Catholic League (Latin: Liga Catholica, German: Katholische Liga) was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609. While initially formed as a confederation to act politically to negotiate issues vis-à-vis the Protestant Union (formed 1608), modelled on the more intransigent ultra-Catholic French Catholic League (1576), it was subsequently concluded as a ...

    • varied, up to 40,000
    • Munich
  3. Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly - YourDictionary.com

    biography.yourdictionary.com/johann-tserclaes...
    • Led Catholic League Army
    • Controlled Palatinate
    • Allied with Wallenstein
    • Battle of Breitenfeld
    • Further Reading on Graf Von Tilly

    At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen. For the next ten years, Tilly polished his troops to create one of the most powerful and efficient forces in the region. The League was first tested in 1620, when the new emperor, Ferdinand II, went to war against his Bohemian subjects, who were aided by unhappy Austrian nobles. Maximilian was willing to ally himself and commit his forces in return for his share of the spoils, namely the territories of the Elector Palatine, Frederick, who had sided with the Bohemians. Tilly was very successful in this, the first major campaign of the Thirty Years' War. The 25,000 members of his Catholic League moved into Bavaria in July. A month later, the Austrian rebels were forced into surrendering at Linz. He outflanked an army of Bohemians and Hungarians in September and October, then joined...

    In 1622, Tilly met the Palatinate army, under the command of Mansfield, at the battle of Mingolsheim. Although he lost that battle, Tilly joined with a Spanish army under Gonzales de Cordoba and was victorious over the rebel Protestant forces under Georg Frederick at Wimpfen on May 6. Moving northward, Tilly beat Christian of Brunswick at Hochst on June 20, catching the rebel army as it tried to cross the river Main. After this battle, Tilly was made a count. He now had control of the Palatinate. Tilly took the city of Heidelberg on September 19, 1622, after an eleven-week siege that laid waste to the town. The following year, on August 6, he devastated the last important German army, when he once again defeated Christian of Brunswick, at Stadtlohn near the Netherlands border. Christian's army of 12,000 troops suffered 10,000 casualties. All of northwest Germany was now under Tilly's command. His success in this period has to be credited to the years he spent preparing his troops. T...

    Responding to the Danes' entrance into the war in 1625, Tilly found himself allied with the mercenary army of Emperor Ferdinand II, commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein. While Tilly was loyal to Maximilian and the Catholic League, Wallenstein was an adventurer and mercenary who always kept his own ends in mind. The two armies worked well together. After Tilly's experienced soldiers routed King Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter in late August 1626, Tilly and Wallenstein forced the Danes back across their own borders the following year. But the princes in Germany grew wary of Wallenstein's ambition. In return for supporting the emperor, they demanded that Wallenstein be removed from his post. Although there was some opposition to putting a seventy-one year old man in charge of sucha large army, Tilly was given the command of Wallenstein's army, while retaining his command of the Catholic League forces. Tilly did not want the combined command, not out of any respect for the departed W...

    Tilly had hoped to stay within the walls of Leipzig. However, Pappenheim committed the Catholic League forces to battle with the Swedes and Saxons at Breitenfeld, about four miles north of Leipzig. The flanking maneuver employed by Pappenheim had little affect on the Swedes linear formation. Tilly had better success over the Saxon army, then turned to attack the exposed left flank of the Swedish army. In previous years, it would have been an easy, overpowering victory. But a number of factors worked against Tilly that day. He could not overcome bad decisions made by Pappenheim early in the battle. The sheer number of the combined armies of Sweden and Saxony—some estimates put them at near 42,000 troops—outnumbered the Catholic forces by many thousand and overwhelmed Tilly's experienced but weary troops. Most importantly, the flexibility and creative tactics of the Swedes continued to befuddle Tilly. Although the Catholic forces held their ground for seven hours of skillful and relen...

    Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography,HarperCollins, 1992. Keegan, John, and Andrew Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History,Hutchinson, 1987. Windrow, Martin and Francis K. Mason The Concise Dictionary of Military BiographyRevised Edition, Windrow and Greene, 1990.

  4. Graf von Tilly | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../graf-von-tilly
    • Led Catholic League Army
    • Controlled Palatinate
    • Allied with Wallenstein
    • Battle of Breitenfeld
    • Further Reading

    At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen. For the next ten years, Tilly polished his troops to create one of the most powerful and efficient forces in the region. The League was first tested in 1620, when the new emperor, Ferdinand II, went to war against his Bohemian subjects, who were aided by unhappy Austrian nobles. Maximilian was willing to ally himself and commit his forces in return for his share of the spoils, namely the territories of the Elector Palatine, Frederick, who had sided with the Bohemians. Tilly was very successful in this, the first major campaign of the Thirty Years' War. The 25,000 members of his Catholic League moved into Bavaria in July. A month later, the Austrian rebels were forced into surrendering at Linz. He outflanked an army of Bohemians and Hungarians in September and October, then joined...

    In 1622, Tilly met the Palatinate army, under the command of Mansfield, at the battle of Mingolsheim. Although he lost that battle, Tilly joined with a Spanish army under Gonzales de Cordoba and was victorious over the rebel Protestant forces under Georg Frederick at Wimpfen on May 6. Moving northward, Tilly beat Christian of Brunswick at Hochst on June 20, catching the rebel army as it tried to cross the river Main. After this battle, Tilly was made a count. He now had control of the Palatinate. Tilly took the city of Heidelberg on September 19, 1622, after an eleven-week siege that laid waste to the town. The following year, on August 6, he devastated the last important German army, when he once again defeated Christian of Brunswick, at Stadtlohn near the Netherlands border. Christian's army of 12,000 troops suffered 10,000 casualties. All of northwest Germany was now under Tilly's command. His success in this period has to be credited to the years he spent preparing his troops. T...

    Responding to the Danes' entrance into the war in 1625, Tilly found himself allied with the mercenary army of Emperor Ferdinand II, commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein. While Tilly was loyal to Maximilian and the Catholic League, Wallenstein was an adventurer and mercenary who always kept his own ends in mind. The two armies worked well together. After Tilly's experienced soldiers routed King Christian IVof Denmark at Lutter in late August 1626, Tilly and Wallenstein forced the Danes back across their own borders the following year. But the princes in Germany grew wary of Wallenstein's ambition. In return for supporting the emperor, they demanded that Wallenstein be removed from his post. Although there was some opposition to putting a seventy-one year old man in charge of sucha large army, Tilly was given the command of Wallenstein's army, while retaining his command of the Catholic League forces. Tilly did not want the combined command, not out of any respect for the departed Wa...

    Tilly had hoped to stay within the walls of Leipzig. However, Pappenheim committed the Catholic League forces to battle with the Swedes and Saxons at Breitenfeld, about four miles north of Leipzig. The flanking maneuver employed by Pappenheim had little affect on the Swedes linear formation. Tilly had better success over the Saxon army, then turned to attack the exposed left flank of the Swedish army. In previous years, it would have been an easy, overpowering victory. But a number of factors worked against Tilly that day. He could not overcome bad decisions made by Pappenheim early in the battle. The sheer number of the combined armies of Sweden and Saxony—some estimates put them at near 42,000 troops—outnumbered the Catholic forces by many thousand and overwhelmed Tilly's experienced but weary troops. Most importantly, the flexibility and creative tactics of the Swedes continued to befuddle Tilly. Although the Catholic forces held their ground for seven hours of skillful and relen...

    Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography,HarperCollins, 1992. Keegan, John, and Andrew Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History,Hutchinson, 1987. Windrow, Martin and Francis K. Mason The Concise Dictionary of Military BiographyRevised Edition, Windrow and Greene, 1990. □

  5. Germany: The Edict of Restitution (1629) | CosmoLearning History

    cosmolearning.org/images/germany-the-edict-of...

    The Palatinate was occupied by Bavarian and Spanish troops in 1622, the palatine electoral dignity was transferred to Maximilian of Bavaria, and the army of the Catholic League led by Count Johann Tserclaes of Tilly threatened to dismantle the remaining Protestant strongholds in northern Germany.

  6. Tilly, Graf von - Biography

    www.swiftpapers.com/biographies/Tilly-Graf-von...

    Led Catholic League Army. At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen. For the next ten years, Tilly polished his troops to create one of the most powerful and efficient forces in the region.

  7. Thirty Years War | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../thirty-years-war
    • The Causes of The War
    • The First Decade of The War
    • from Catholic and Triumph to Abortive Compromise, 1629–1635
    • The Last Phase of The War and The Road to Settlement
    • The Nature and Impact of Warfare
    • Bibliography

    For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead. This was very much Rudolf II's (ruled 1576–1612) fate during the last decad...

    In August 1619 the Estates of Bohemia deposed Ferdinand II, who had officially succeeded Emperor Matthias as king of Bohemia in March, and elected Frederick V, elector palatine, the leader of the Calvinists in Germany, in his stead. However, Frederick's rule was short lived. In November 1620 his army suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain near Prague against the emperor's army, which had been reinforced by troops from the Bavarian-led Catholic League and by Spanish reg...

    At this stage, however, the Habsburg ascendancy in Europe, successfully reasserted in the early 1620s, was seriously challenged by France and Sweden. In 1628 La Rochelle, the stronghold of the French Huguenots, had been taken by a royal army led by Louis XIII and the prime minister, Cardinal Richelieu, in person. France was now free to intervene in central Europe. Initially, however, French troops confronted Spain only in Italy (the War of the Mantuan Succession, 1628–1631). Here they defied...

    France was now faced by the prospect of a Spanish offensive supported by the emperor's army against the garrisons it had placed beyond its frontiers, in Lorraine, Alsace, and along the upper Rhine and Moselle rivers in the preceding years. In answer to an attack on the prince-bishop of Trier, who had become a French ally and client in 1632, Louis XIII declared war on Spain in May 1635. With the emperor's own declaration of war on France in March 1636, the war in Germany had, it seemed, finall...

    Most countries—the Dutch Republic, which benefited from a flourishing economy in the midst of military conflict, was probably one of the few exceptions—waged war between 1618 and 1648 with financial resources that were grossly inadequate. Some countries such as Sweden nevertheless managed to finance their armies for long periods of time primarily out of contributions raised in areas under military occupation. Others tried, with limited success, to rely on taxation. France, for example, manage...

    Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte des Dreißigjährigen Krieges, Neue Folge, Die Politik Maximilians von Baiern und seiner Verbündeten 1618–1651. Part I, vol. I and II, edited by G. Franz and A. Duch; Part II, vol. I–X, edited by W. Goetz, D. Albrecht and K. Bierther. Leipzig, Munich, and Vienna, 1907–1997. Important edition of sources based mainly on the records of the Bavarian state archive in Munich; latest volumes so far deal with Peace of Prague (1635).Documenta Bohemica Bellum Tricennale Il...

  8. AP European History Unit 2: Reformation ID's Flashcards | Quizlet

    quizlet.com/146543318/ap-european-history-unit-2...

    Led Catholic imperial army, argued with Catholic league leading to a division of forces, enforced edict of restitution. Gustavus Adolphus Swedish King who backed the Bohemian Protestants in the 30 Years' War.

  9. AP European History Unit 3: Reformation Flashcards | Quizlet

    quizlet.com/98149468/ap-european-history-unit-3...

    - a.k.a. Catholic League of France - Referred to by contemporary Roman Catholics as the Holy League - Major player in the French Wars of Religion - Formed by Duke Henry of Guise in 1576 - Extremist group bent on the eradication of French Protestants - Immediately began to exert pressure on Henry III of France

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