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      • Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dum_Diversas#:~:text=Dum%20Diversas%20%28English%3A%20Until%20different%29%20is%20a%20papal,and%20pagans%20and%20consign%20them%20to%20%22perpetual%20servitude%22.
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  2. Pope Nicholas V - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Nicholas_V

    In late spring of 1452 Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI wrote to Pope Nicholas for help against the impending siege by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. Nicholas issued the bull Dum Diversas (18 June 1452) authorizing King Alfonso V of Portugal to "attack, conquer, and subjugate Saracens, pagans and other enemies of Christ wherever they may be found".

    • 6 March 1447
    • 16 December 1446, by Eugene IV
  3. Nicholas V | Vatican Library & Dum Diversas | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Nicholas-V-pope

    In 1452 Pope Nicholas V issued a papal bull entitled Dum Diversas, which authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans” in a disputed territory in Africa and consign them to “perpetual servitude.”

  4. Dum Diversas - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dum_Diversas

    Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V.It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".

  5. Dum Diversas - Doctrine of Discovery

    doctrineofdiscovery.org/dum-diversas

    Jul 23, 2018 · Dum Diversas 1 minute read Papal Bull Dum Diversas 18 June, 1452. Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, 1452. It authorised Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and any other unbelievers” to perpetual slavery.

  6. THE POPE, THE JEWS, AND THE SLAVE TRADE - Lines & Precepts

    linesandprecepts.com/2013/11/23/slavetrade

    Nov 23, 2013 · Pope Nicholas V issued the Papal Bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, 1452. It authorised Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and any other unbelievers” to perpetual slavery. This facilitated the Portuguese slave trade from West Africa.

  7. 1452: Papal Bull Dum Diversas » Tyler, Texas - History Of ...

    www.tylerhistory.org/2018/08/27/1452-papal-bull-dum-diversas

    Aug 27, 2018 · Issued by Pope Nicholas V 18 June, 1452. Servant of the Servants of God. For the perpetual memory of this act: To the dearest son in Christ Alfonse, illustrious King of Portugal and the Algarbians, Greetings and Apostolic Blessing

  8. Niccolo Machiavelli | Biography, Books, Philosophy, & Facts ...

    www.britannica.com/biography/Niccolo-Machiavelli

    In a letter to a friend in 1498, Machiavelli writes of listening to the sermons of Girolamo Savonarola (1452–98), a Dominican friar who moved to Florence in 1482 and in the 1490s attracted a party of popular supporters with his thinly veiled accusations against the government, the clergy, and the pope.

  9. Doctrine of Discovery: A scandal in plain sight | National ...

    www.ncronline.org/news/justice/doctrine...

    Sep 05, 2015 · The letter called on the pope to “formally and publicly repudiate and rescind the Dum Diversas Bull of 1452, and other related bulls, which grant the Pope’s blessing ‘to capture, vanquish ...

  10. Who were the most influential popes throughout history? - Quora

    www.quora.com/Who-were-the-most-influential...

    Apr 22, 2017 · Pope Nicholas V (1397–1455): Pope Nicholas was responsible for the papal bull, Dum Diversas (1452). It was granted to the Portuguese and allowed them to place the Saracens and Africans into "perpetual servitude" for being godless (and without soul...

  11. The Medici Family - HISTORY

    www.history.com/topics/renaissance/medici-family
    • Birth of The Medici Dynasty
    • The Descendants of Cosimo de’ Medici
    • A New Medici Branch Comes to Power
    • The Medici Dynasty in Decline

    The Medici story began around the 12th century, when family members from the Tuscan village of Cafaggiolo emigrated to Florence. Through banking and commerce, the Medicis rose to become one of the most important houses in Florence. Their influence had declined by the late 14th century, however, when Salvestro de’ Medici (then serving as gonfaliere, or standard bearer, of Florence) was forced into exile.Another branch of the family, descended from Salvestro’s distant cousin Giovanni di Bicci d...

    Lorenzo was a poet himself, and supported the work of such Renaissance masters as Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo (whom the Medicis commissioned to complete their family tombs in Florence). After Lorenzo’s premature death at the age of 43, his eldest son Piero succeeded him, but soon infuriated the public by accepting an unfavorable peace treaty with France. After only two years in power, he was forced out of the city in 1494, and died in exile.Thanks in part to the efforts of...

    By the early 1520s, few descendants of Cosimo the Elder remained. Giulio de’ Medici, the illegitimate son of Lorenzo the Magnificent’s brother Giuliano, abdicated power in 1523 to become Pope Clement VII, and the short and brutal rule of Alessandro (reputed to be Giulio’s own illegitimate son) ended with his assassination in 1537. At this point, the descendants of Cosimo the Elder’s brother (known as Lorenzo the Elder) came forward to launch a new Medici dynasty. Lorenzo’s great-great-grandso...

    In general, the later Medici line renounced the older generation’s republican sympathies and established more authoritarian rule, a change that produced stability in Florence and Tuscany but led to the region’s decline as a cultural hub. After Ferdinand’s son Cosimo II (who supported the work of the mathematician, philosopher and astronomer Galileo Galilei) died in 1720, Florence and Tuscany suffered under ineffectual Medici rule.When the last Medici grand duke, Gian Gastone, died without a m...