The Duchy of Bohemia was established in 870 and raised to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198. Several Bohemian monarchs ruled as non-hereditary kings beforehand, first gaining the title in 1085. From 1004 to 1806, Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and its ruler was an elector.
Boleslav I, Přemyslid prince of Bohemia from 929, who established the basis of the medieval Czech state. After instigating the murder of his elder brother, Prince Wenceslas I (St. Wenceslas), Boleslav became ruler of Bohemia. He made Prague the effective administrative centre of his domain,
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia (1617–19, 1620–27), and king of Hungary (1618–25). He was the leading champion of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation and of absolutist rule during the Thirty Years’ War.
- Who Was John of Bohemia?
- Fighting For The Kingdom of Bohemia
- John Was A Capable King of Bohemia…
- …But His Subjects Didn’T Love Him
- Two Dynasties, Two Kings
- Military Campaigns and John The Blind
- John of Luxembourg in The Hundred Years’ War
- The King of Bohemia at The Battle of Crécy
- John of Bohemia’s Legacy
John of Bohemia was born on August 10, 1296 in Luxembourg. His father was Henry VII, the Count of Luxembourg and his mother was a noblewoman by the name of Margaret of Brabant. John belonged to the Limburg-Luxembourg dynasty, which had been established by Henry IV, his great-grandfather, in 1240. 1. Black Monday: The Deadly 14th Century Hailstorm That Killed Over 1000 Soldiers and 6000 Horses 2. King Edward III Had Eyes on the French Kingship and it Led to the Hundred Years War Henry could consider himself the founder of a new dynasty as his son and heir, Henry VI, was born in that year. While Henry V and Henry VI both held the title ‘Count of Luxembourg,’ Henry VII made it two steps further, becoming King of Germany - formally King of the Romans in 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1312. Henry was the first member of this dynasty to be crowned emperor and several of his descendants would attain this title as well. As a child, John was brought up in Paris and was educated in the classi...
The Kingdom of Bohemia was a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and is today the westernmost, and largest part of the Czech Republic. In 1306, the Přemyslid dynasty, which traces its origin to the 9th century AD, came to an end when its last male member, Wenceslaus III, was assassinated, which caused instability in the kingdom, as several contenders fought for the Bohemian throne. Although Wenceslaus was the last male member of the Přemyslid dynasty, he had several sisters, including Anne of Bohemia and Elizabeth of Bohemia. In addition, there was the widow of Wenceslaus’s father (Wenceslaus II), Elizabeth Richeza of Poland. It was through these three women that the contenders made their bid for the throne of Bohemia. Anne was married to Henry of Carinthia, while Elizabeth Richeza married Rudolf of Habsburg a year after her first husband’s death. In 1306, the throne of Bohemia was occupied by Henry. In the same year, he was deposed and Rudolf became the new king. Rudolf died in the f...
Henry tried to marry Elizabeth off to Otto of Löbdaburg for political reasons, but the princess refused to do so. In 1310, Elizabeth sought the support of the German king. In exchange for his assistance against her brother-in-law, Elizabeth offered to marry the king’s son, John, who had been made Count of Luxembourg in that year. The king agreed to princess’ proposal, and the 14 year old John and was married to the 18 year old Elizabeth on August 30, 1310. Soon after, the newlyweds, accompanied by a German-Bohemian army, set out for Prague, and captured the city on December 19, 1310. John was named the new King of Bohemia and crowned in Prague on February 7, 1311. Wedding of John of Luxemburg and Elise of Premyslid in Speyer 1310 / Hochzeit Johanns von Luxemburg mit Elisabeth von Böhmen (Elisabeth (Eliška) Přemyslovna) in Speyer 1310. ( Public Domain ) John proved to be a capable ruler. Together with a team of advisors, the king came to understand the problems affecting his newly-ga...
In addition to this, John was also a claimant to the thrones of Poland and Hungary, by virtue of his status as the successor of Wenceslaus. John also extended the kingdom’s northern borders by acquiring Upper Lusatia and Silesia during the 1320s. In spite of these contributions to the kingdom, John was not well-loved by his subjects. This was due to the fact that he spent lavishly, which in turn required him to tax the Bohemiansheavily. Moreover, John was regarded as a foreign ruler, especially by the nobility, which eroded his popularity even further. In addition, John’s marriage was not going smoothly either. Although John and Elizabeth had seven children together, the couple lived almost separate lives. John of Luxemburg from medieval manuscript. ( Public Domain ) To make matters worse, rumors indicating that Elizabeth was involved in a plot against her husband began to circulate in 1323. John, who became anxious about losing his throne, decided to kidnap his three eldest childre...
At the time of Henry’s death, the Holy Roman Empire was dominated by two major dynasties – the House of Luxembourg and the House of Habsburg . In 1314, when Henry’s successor was to be elected, John was only 18 years old and considered too young to be a viable candidate. Therefore, the Luxembourg faction settled for Louis IV (known also by his nickname ‘the Bavarian’), who hailed from the House of Wittelsbach. Although Louis was elected King of the Romans, and was subsequently crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, his election was not without opposition. In fact, two elections had been held in 1314, and the Habsburg candidate, Frederick the Handsome (or ‘the Fair’), was elected during the first round. A second election (with different prince-electors) was held the next day by the Luxembourg faction, who were not satisfied with the result of the previous day. 1. Defeat Was Not an Option: Viking King Herlaug and His Men Choose to be Buried Alive Instead 2. Halfdan Ragnarsson: Viking Com...
John’s involvement in European politics was not limited to the conflict in the Holy Roman Empire, as he also went on various military campaigns around Europe, which gained him widespread fame as the ideal knight-errant. Incidentally, as John was quite frequently absent from Bohemia, he decided to leave the administration of the kingdom in the hands of his viceroys. One of the most famous campaigns John participated in was the Northern Crusades, during which he aided the Teutonic Order against the pagans of Lithuania. It was also during this time that John went blind. In 1336, while on campaign with the Teutonic Order, John contracted ophthalmia (inflammation of the eye), which resulted in his blindness. According to one story (which may be apocryphal), the king lost the vision in one eye to cataract. The physician hired to heal the king was unsuccessful and was therefore put to death by drowning. Later on, the king went to Avignon, where Guy de Chauliac, a physician famed for his ex...
In 1337, the Hundred Years’ War broke out and John decided to lend his support to the French. The emperor, however, was a supporter of the English, and the relationship between John and Louis grew increasingly strained as the years progressed. Eventually, in 1346, John allied himself with the pope, Clement VI, and secured a formal deposition of the emperor. Louis was replaced by John’s son, Charles, who was elected as King of the Romans. Subsequently, in 1355, Charles was crowned Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV. John died in the same year that Charles was elected King of the Romans. In 1346, the Hundred Years’ War had been going on for almost 10 years. On July 12 of that year, the English king, Edward III , landed an invasion force on the coast of Normandy. Edward’s’ goal was to conduct a large-scale raid through northern France in order to support his claim to the French throne. The English army, which numbered about 14,000 men, began raiding the Norman countryside, and captured C...
On August 24 the English won the Battle of Blanchetaque and crossed the Somme. After that, the English army camped near the forest of Crécy. In the meantime, Philip marched his army quickly to Crécy, as he was eager to defeat the English. Furthermore, as the English had crossed the Somme, Philip’s strategy of trapping them between the Seine and the Somme was foiled. On August 26, two days after Edward had crossed the Somme, the English and French armies met for battle. Philip initiated the battle by assaulting the English with his 4,000 hired Genoese crossbowmen. These mercenaries, however, were no match for Edward’s 10,000 longbowmen, who were able to fire much further, and reload much faster. Fresco by Lazzaro Tavarone at the Palazzo Cattaneo Adorno, depicting the crossbowmen of Genoa during the storming of Jerusalem. ( Public Domain ) Moreover, as a result of the brief thunderstorm before the battle, the crossbowstrings became wet and slackened, rendering them much less effective...
The English lost between 100 and 300 men at the Battle of Crécy , whereas French losses are estimated to have been between 13,000 and 14,000. Among the dead were many of France’s noblemen, including the king’s brother, Charles II of Alençon, the Duke of Lorraine, and the Count of Blois. John was also in that group, though he is remembered for being chivalrous till the very end. Painting by Julian Russel Story of the Black Prince at the battle of Crecy. At his feet lies the body of the dead King John of Bohemia. ( Public Domain ) A record of John’s final actions is found in the Chronicles of Jean Froissart. According to Froissart, when John learned about the order of the battle, he desired to go into battle. Being blind, however, the king would have easily lost his way on the battlefield. Therefore, John’s men tied the reins of their horses’ bridles to the king’s to guide him on the battlefield. Needless to say, they were killed by the English. In another account, the Chronicle of Pr...
People also ask
Who was king john of bohemia?
Who gave up the administration of bohemia?
What is the history of Bohemia?
Who was the emperor of Austria in 1637?
- Problems with The Aristocracy
- International Politics
- Family and Children
- Further Reading
- External Links
Raised in Paris, John was French by education, but deeply involved in the politics of Germany. In 1310 his father arranged the marriage of the 14-year-old to Elisabeth from the Přemyslid dynasty, sister of the deceased King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia. The wedding took place in Speyer, after which the newly weds made their way to Prague accompanied by a group led by the experienced diplomat and expert on Czech issues, Peter of Aspelt, Archbishop of Mainz. Because Henry had imperial regiments accompany and protect the couple from Nuremberg to Prague the Czech forces were able to gain control of Prague and depose the reigning King Henry of Carinthia on December 3, 1310. The Castle at Prague was uninhabitable so John made residence in one of the houses on the Old Town Square and with the help of his advisors he stabilized affairs in the Czech state. He thereby became one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire and – in succession of Wenceslaus III – claimant to the Polish a...
One of John of Luxembourg’s first steps as king was the re-establishment of authority and to secure peace within the country. In 1311 he was able to reach an agreement with the Bohemian and Moravian aristocracy which is referred to as the “inaugural diplomas” with which John restricted the relations of both the ruler and aristocracy. The aristocracy was however allowed to hold the right to elect the king, to decide the matter of extraordinary taxation, the right to their property, and the right to choose freely whether or not to offer military support to the king in foreign wars. Although the aristocracy was encouraged to raise armies when peace within the country was threatened. On the other hand the king’s right to appoint a foreign official to office was abolished. John structured these agreements in order to provide a basis for the consolidation of the ruler’s power within the Bohemian kingdom. The agreements weren’t as successful as John intended. The aristocracy did not intend...
The international spectrum was further broadened for John when his father named him Vicar General, his deputy for the governance of the Empire. This allowed for John to reach further and he was able to contribute to the imperial coronation along with helping with the conclusion of the Italian territorial wars. In 1313 Henry died suddenly bringing an end to this collaboration between him and John. However, through Henry’s death a spot for the imperial crown opened up making John a possible candidate. The other two candidates being Fredrick of the Hapsburgs and Ludwig of Bavaria. In attempts to not support Fredrick John voted for Ludwig at the diet of electors. In return for his support Ludwig, as the new imperial king, promised the support in territorial claims of the Czech state in Silesia and Meissen as well as the region of Cheb and the Upper Palatinate. Later in 1319, after the Brandenburg House of Ascania died out, John regained control over the Bautzen region and then the Görli...
The body of John the Blind was moved to Kloster Altmünster ("Old-Minster Abbey") in Luxembourg. When the abbey was destroyed in 1543 the corpse was moved to Kloster Neumünster ("New-Minster Abbey") in Luxembourg. During the confusion of the French Revolution the mortal remains were salvaged by the Boch industrialist family (founders of Villeroy & Boch, ennobled in 1892) and hidden in an attic room in Mettlachon the Saar River. The legend has it that the monks of the abbey asked Pierre-Joseph Boch for this favor. His son Jean-François Boch met with Prince Frederick William of Prussia on his voyage through the Rhineland in 1833 offering the remains as a gift. As Prince Frederick considered John the Blind to be one of his ancestors he ordered Karl Friedrich Schinkel to construct a funeral chapel. The chapel was built in 1834 and 1835 near Kastel-Staadton a rock above the town. In 1838 on the anniversary of his death John the Blind was laid in a black marble Sarcophagus in a public cere...
According to the Cronica ecclesiae pragensis Benesii Krabice de Weitmile, before he died at the Battle of Crécy, he said: "With God's help it will never be that a Bohemian king would run from a fight!"
He was married twice: First, to Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330). In this marriage he had the following children: 1. Margaret of Bohemia (8 July 1313 – 11 July 1341, Prague), married in Straubing 12 August 1328 to Henry XIV, Duke of Bavaria. 2. Bonne (21 May 1315 – 11 September 1349, Maubuisson), married in Melun6 August 1332 to King John II of France. 3. Charles IV(14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. 4. Ottokar ("Otto") (22 November 1318 – 20 April 1320), Prince of Bohemia. 5. John Henry (Jan Jindřich) (12 February 1322, Mělník – 12 November 1375), Margraveof Moravia. 6. Anna (1323 – 3 September 1338), twin of Elizabeth, married 16 February 1335 to Otto, Duke of Austria. 7. Elizabeth (1323–1324), twin of Anna. Second (December 1334), to Beatrice of Bourbon, daughter of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. This marriage produced one son: 1. Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg (25 February 1337 – 7 December 1383), Duke of Luxembourg and Brabant. His illegitimate son...↑ Nowakowski Tomasz Tadeusz: Kazimierz Wielki a Bydgoszcz. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2003. ISBN 83-7322-527-7. , pp. 73–74, 76, 79, 83, 165–171, 176
Agnew, Hugh L. The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2004. 30-33. Print. Neillands, Robin. The Hundred Years' War. London: Routledge, 1990. 100. Print. Teich, Mikuláš. Bohemia in History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 53-55. Print. Pánek, Jaroslav, and Oldřich Tůma. A History Of The Czech Lands. Prague: Karolinum Press, 2009. 121-25. Print.
- 10 August 1296 Luxembourg
- 26 August 1346 near Crécy-en-Ponthieu
- Elizabeth of Bohemia #N#Beatrice of Bourbon
Czechoslovak history - Czechoslovak history - The Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia (895–1306): In 895 the prince of Bohemia made an accord with Arnulf, the German king who had attacked Moravia, and thereby warded off the danger of invasion. The domain over which the house of Přemysl ruled from Prague was in the early 10th century the largest political unit in Bohemia. Hostile tribal chieftains ...
One of John's first steps as king was the re-establishment of authority and to secure peace within the country. In 1311 he was able to reach an agreement with the Bohemian and Moravian aristocracy which is referred to as the "inaugural diplomas" with which John restricted the relations of both the ruler and aristocracy.
Guglielma (1210 - 24 October 1281) (Wilhelmina of Bohemia, Vilemína Česká, Guglielmina Boema) Daughter of Ottokar I of Bohemia, was an Italian noblewoman, of the 13th century. She practiced and preached an alternative, feminized version of Christianity in which she predicted the end of time and her own resurrection as the Holy Spirit incarnate.
Dec 04, 2018 · But once the dust had settled, the people of Bohemia decided they’d like Wenceslas to be their ruler. His mother ruled as regent until young Wenceslas reached the age of 18… at which point he promptly banished her. And when he came of age he banished his mother.