The British Empire was composed of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries.
The British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's land area at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations .
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Todays working royals are all descendents of King George V and Queen Mary, from the reigning monarch Queen Elizabeth II to her youngest great grandchild Prince Louis. Follow the line of succession and get to know the royals you know and love such as Prince Charles, Prince William, and Princess Eugenie, as as well as Queen Elizabeths parents King George VI and The Queen Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon with the interactive family tree tool that explores the full ancestry of the Royal House of Windsor starting with King George V and Queen Mary through to Queen Elizabeths great grandchildren.
The grandson of Queen Victoriaand grandfather to Queen ElizabethGeorge V was born third in the line of succession and did not expect to become king. That changed after his elder brother Prince Albert Victor died in 1892. George ascended the throne after the death of his father in 1910, serving as King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India until his death in 1936. Following Edwards abdication in 1936, Albert took the throne and assumed the name King George VI. The dissolution of the British Empire and formation of the British Commonwealth were finalized during Georges reign, so he was both the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth. George died in 1952 at the age of 56, and was succeeded by his daughter.
The youngest child of George V and Queen Mary, John was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of four, and was sent to live at Sandringham House where he was cared for by his governess. He died in 1919 at the age of 13, following a severe seizure. His condition was not disclosed to the public until after his death.
King George V and Queen Marys third son, Henry was the first child of a British monarch to be educated at school, rather than be tutored at home, and ultimately attended Eton College. He served in the British military and had ambitions to command a regiment, but his career was interrupted by royal responsibilities following the 1936 abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He married Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott in 1935, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Henry died in 1974 as the eldest surviving child of George V and Mary.
The wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Queen Elizabeths aunt by marriage, Lady Alice was a direct descendant of Charles II through his illegitimate son, the nobleman James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. She married Prince Henry in 1935, days after the death of her father, the 7th Duke of Buccleuch. The couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Alice died at the age of 102 in 2004.
The wife of Prince George, and a princess of the Greek royal house, Princess Marina was the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. (Prince Philip is her first cousin.) In 1932, she met Prince George during a visit to London, and the couple married two years later; theirs was the first royal wedding to be broadcast by wireless radio. The couple had three children: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, and Prince Michael. Following her husbands death in 1942, Marina remained an active member of the royal family and carried out many royal duties across the world, even representing the Queen at some events. She died in 1968 at the age of 61.
The eldest child of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, Prince Edward is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen. As a grandchild of George V and Queen Mary, he is the Queens first cousin, and since his mother was a first cousin to Prince Philip, Edward is also Philips first cousin once removed. Edward inherited the dukedom of Kent following his fathers death in a 1942 military air crash. Nearly two decades later, he married Katharine Worsley, and the couple have three children together George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews (1962-), Lady Helen Taylor (1964-), Lord Nicholas Windsor (1970-) and ten grandchildren (Lord Edward Windsor, Lady Marina Charlotte Windsor, Lady Amelia Windsor, Columbus Taylor, Cassius Taylor, Eloise Taylor, Estella Taylor, Albert Windsor, Leopold Windsor and Louis Windsor). Now in his 80s, Prince Edward regularly carries out royal duties on behalf of the Queen. He and his wife live on the grounds of Kensington Palace in the royal residence Wren House.
Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth. Born third in the line of succession, Elizabeth became the presumptive heir to the throne in 1936, following the abdication of her uncle Edward VIII and the ascension of her father, George VI. In 1947, she became engaged to Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, whom she had first met at the age of 13. The couple were married the same year at Westminster Abbey, and have four children together. After her father died in 1952, Elizabeth ascended to the throne. Currently in her 90s, she is both the longest-reigning and the longest-living British monarch in history, having reigned for more than 66 years. Her great-grandmother Queen Victoria, the second longest-reigning monarch, reigned for 63 years.
Antony Armstrong-Jones, a.k.a. Lord Snowdon, was the husband of Princess Margaret, and brother-in-law to Queen Elizabeth. Armstrong-Jones was a fashion and society photographer when he met Margaret in 1958, and they married two years later in 1960. The couple had two children together David Armstrong-Jones (1961-) and Lady Sarah Chatto (1964-) and four grandchildren (Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones, Samuel Chatto and Arthur Chatto), but divorced in 1978. Armstrong-Jones married his second wife Lucy Mary Lindsay-Hogg that same year, and they remained married until 2000. Armstrong-Jones died in 2017 at the age of 86.
Prince Philip is best known as Queen Elizabeths husband and consort, but he is also royal in his own right. He was born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, but Philip and his family were exiled from Greece during his childhood, and so he studied in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom before eventually serving in the British Royal Navy. He married then-Princess Elizabeth in 1947, during the reign of her father George VI, and the couple have four children together. Now in his 90s, Philip is not only the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch, but also the longest-living male British royal in history.
The eldest child of Queen Elizabeth, and the heir apparent to the British throne, Prince Charles was born in 1948 in Buckingham Palace. He went on to be educated at a number of institutions including Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools (which his father attended before him) and Cambridge University, before serving in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. In 1981, Charles married Diana Spencer, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Harry, before divorcing in 1996. Charles later married his second wife Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005. Having held the title since 1958, Charles is the longest-serving Prince of Wales in history. He is also the first heir to the British throne ever to have a university degree. Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961 into British nobility, as the third child out of four of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp and Frances Roche. She met Prince Charles when she was 16, and married him in July of 1981, becoming the Princess of Wales. Charles and Diana had two children together, Prince William and Prince Harry before divorcing in 1996. One year later, she tragically died in a car accident in Paris on August 31, 1997. The second wife of Prince Charles, Camilla Rosemary Shand is the eldest daughter of military officer and businessman Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Shand. She is also the granddaughter of nobleman Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe. In 1973, Camilla married her first husband Andrew Parker Bowles, and the couple had two children, Tom and Lisa, before divorcing in 1995. In 2005, Camilla married Prince Charles in a civil ceremony, and she became the Duchess of Cornwall. Prince Andrew is the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, He served in the Royal Navy for many years, including during the Falklands War in 1982, and holds the ranks of commander and Vice Admiral. He married Sarah Ferguson in 1986, and the couple had two daughters, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie, before divorcing in 1996. The younger daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah, Duchess of York, and Queen Elizabeths granddaughter. Eugenie attended St Georges School with her elder sister Beatrice, and later graduated from Newcastle University. In October of 2018, Eugenie married her partner of seven years, Jack Brooksbank, in a ceremony at Windsor Castle. The youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Edward attended Cambridge University and later joined the Royal Marines, but dropped out after four months. In 1999 he married Sophie Rhys-Jones, and the couple have two children. Prince Edward is a full-time working royal and has recently taken over several responsibilities from his father, following Prince Philips retirement from royal duties.
The second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Princess Anne is one of the hardest working members of the royal family. She is also an accomplished equestrian, and was even the first British royal to compete in the Olympic Games. In 1973, Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, and the couple had two children together before divorcing in 1992. Later that year, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, her mothers former equerry. She currently resides in St Jamess Palace.
Princess Anne met her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips, at the 1972 Olympics in Munich, where he was part of the British equestrian team and also competed individually. The couple married in 1973, and had two children together before divorcing in 1992.
The elder daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah, Duchess of York, and Queen Elizabeths granddaughter. Beatrice was educated at St Georges School (the alma mater of Prince Richards daughters Lady Davina Lewis and Lady Rose Gilman) and in 2011 graduated from Goldsmiths College in London.
The second child, and only daughter, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Charlotte was born on May 2, 2015. She is currently fourth in the line of succession. The third child, and second son, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Prince Louis was born on April 23, 2018. He is currently fifth in the line of succession.
- Michael Stillwell
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George III was born on June 4 th 1738 at Norfolk House, St James Square. He succeeded as King of Great Britain, King of Ireland and Elector of Hanover on 25 th October 1760, aged 22. George married Charlotte Sophia, daughter of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on September 8 th George died at the age of 81 on January 29 th 1820 at Windsor.
Edward VIII(Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdomand the Dominionsof the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdicationin December of the same year.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war, France and its client states under Napoleon I, defeated an alliance, the Third Coalition, made up of the United Kingdom, the Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, Naples, Sicily and Sweden.
On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee, and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary. Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017.
"God Save the Queen" was the sole official national anthem until 1977 when "God Defend New Zealand" was added as a second. "God Save the Queen" is now most often only played when the sovereign, governor-general or other member of the Royal Family is present, or on some occasions such as Anzac Day.