Nietzsche's parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher; and Franziska Nietzsche (née Oehler) (1826–1897), married in 1843, the year before their son's birth.
- Key Concepts
- Place in Contemporary Ethical Theory
- Gender Views
- Kierkegaard and Nietzsche
- Reception of Nietzsche
- of Interest to Psychologists
Friedrich Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, within what was then the Prussian province of Saxony. His name comes from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, on whose 49th birthday Nietzsche was born. Nietzsche's parents were Carl Ludwig (1813-1849), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, and Franziska (1826-1897). His sister, Elisabeth, was born in 1846, followed by his brother Ludwig Joseph in 1848. After the death of their father in 1849 and th...
Professor at Basel (1869–1879)
Based on Ritschl's support, Nietzsche received the extraordinary offer to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel before having completed his doctorate degree or certificate for teaching. Among his philological work there, he discovered that the ancient poetic meterrelated only to the length of syllables, different from the modern, accentuating meter. In accordance with his own wish, after moving to Basel, Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship, and was for th...
Free philosopher (1879–1889)
Driven by his illness to find more compatible climates, Nietzsche travelled frequently and lived until 1889 as a free author in different cities. He spent many summers in Sils Maria, near St. Moritz in Switzerland, and many winters in the Italian cities of Genoa, Rapallo, and Turin, and the French city of Nice. He occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family, and especially during this time, he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. He lived on his pensio...
Much controversy surrounds whether Nietzsche advocated a single or comprehensive philosophical viewpoint. Many charge Nietzsche with propounding contradictory thoughts and ideas. Here are Nietzsche's main ideas.
Nietzsche is unique among philosophers for what is widely regarded as the remarkable power and effectiveness of his prose style - particularly as manifested in Zarathustra. The indigestible 'heaviness' long associated with German-language philosophy is eschewed, with puns and paradoxes abounding, and aphoristic brevity rubbing shoulders with parable and even poem in his rhetoric. The end result is a manner of philosophical writing which, being "pitched half-way between metaphor and literal statement" is "something quite extraordinary" (J.P. Stern). His work has been described as 'half philosophic, half poetic'; the fact that it can thus manage to convince the reader emotionally as well as intellectually is no doubt one reason for its appeal (especially among creative artists) - but it also means that the theory behind the metaphors is never fully or clearly written out. One problem inevitably caused by this is that the boundaries of his thinking are not easily discerned: for example...
Nietzsche's work addresses ethics from several perspectives; in today's terms, we might say his remarks pertain to meta-ethics, normative ethics, and descriptive ethics. As far as meta-ethics is concerned, Nietzsche can perhaps most usefully be classified as a moral skeptic; that is, he claims that all ethical statements are false, because any kind of correspondence between ethical statements and "moral facts" is illusory. (This is part of a more general claim that there is no universally true fact, roughly because none of them more than "appear" to correspond to reality). Instead, ethical statements (like all statements) are mere "interpretations." Sometimes, Nietzsche may seem to have very definite opinions on what is moral or immoral. Note, however, that Nietzsche's moral opinions may be explained without attributing to him the claim that they are "true." For Nietzsche, after all, we needn't disregard a statement merely because it is false. On the contrary, he often claims that f...
Nietzsche's comments on women have provoked a great deal of discussion. Given modern sensitivities regarding the sexes and the rise of feminism, Walter Kaufmann has gone so far as to call these remarks an embarrassment. The fact that Nietzsche also mocked men and manliness has not saved him from the charge of sexism. However, the women he came into contact with typically reported that he was amiable and treated their ideas with much more respect and consideration than they generally expected from educated men in that period of time, amidst various sociological circumstances of the time (e.g., patriarchy). Much of Nietzsche's commentary on women (and men) should be read in light of his revaluation of values and his continuing encouragements for humanity to reach for something higher - why, for example, push for women's involvement in politics when women can direct their energies toward something more? Moreover, some of his statements on women seem to prefigure the criticisms of postf...
Many philosophers believe Nietzsche, aside from the name, knew little of the 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855). Georg Brandes, a Danish philosopher, wrote to Nietzsche in 1888 asking him to study the works of Kierkegaard, to which Nietzsche replied that he would. Nietzsche was unable to undertake this task before his mental collapse in 1889. However, recent research believed Nietzsche was exposed to the works of Kierkegaard, through secondary literature. Aside from Brandes, Nietzsche owned and read a copy of Hans Lassen Martensen’s Christliche Ethik (1873) in which Martensen extensively quoted and wrote about Kierkegaard’s individualism in ethics and religion. Nietzsche also read Harald Høffding’s Psychologie in Umrissen auf Grundlage der Erfahrung (ed. 1887) which expounded and critiqued Kierkegaard’s psychology. Thomas Brobjer believes one of the works Nietzsche wrote about Kierkegaard is in Morgenröthe, which was partly written in response to Martensen's work...
In his 1916 Egotism in German Philosophy, American philosopher George Santayanadismissed Nietzsche as a "prophet of Romanticism". Among the first to recognize Nietzsche's importance was the German novelist Thomas Mann, who showed Nietzsche's influence in his novels, especially his 1947 Doktor Faustus. In 1936, Martin Heideggerlectured on the "Will to Power as a Work of Art", and would later publish four large volumes of lectures on Nietzsche. In 1938, the German existentialist Karl Jasperscommented about the influence of Nietzsche: 1. The contemporary philosophical situation is determined by the fact that two philosophers, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, who did not count in their times and, for a long time, remained without influence in the history of philosophy, have continually grown in significance. Philosophers after Hegel have increasingly returned to face them, and they stand today unquestioned as the authentically great thinkers of their age. ... The effect of both is immeasurabl...
Writings and philosophy
1. Aus meinem Leben, 1858 2. Über Musik, 1858 3. Napoleon III als Praesident, 1862 4. Fatum und Geschichte, 1862 5. Willensfreiheit und Fatum, 1862 6. Kann der Neidische je wahrhaft glücklich sein?, 1863 7. Über Stimmungen, 1864 8. Mein Leben, 1864 9. Homer und die klassische Philologie, 1868 10. Über die Zukunft unserer Bildungsanstalten 11. Fünf Vorreden zu fünf ungeschriebenen Büchern, 1872 comprised of: 1. 1.1. Über das Pathos der Wahrheit(On the Pathos of Truth) 1.2. Gedanken über die Zu...
Major English translations
1. The Birth of Tragedy, 1872 1. 1.1. in: 'Basic Writings of Nietzsche', trans. Walter Kaufmann, Modern Library, 2000, ISBN 0679783393 1.2. in: 'The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings', trans. Ronald Spiers, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0521639875(also contains: 'The Dionysiac World View' and 'On Truth and Lying in a Non-Moral Sense') 1.3. in: 'The Birth of Tragedy and the Case of Wagner', trans. Walter Kaufmann, Vintage, 1967, ISBN 0394703693 1.4. in: 'The Birth of Tragedy & the G...
1. De fontibus Laertii Diogenii 2. Über die alten hexametrischen Nomen 3. Über die Apophthegmata und ihre Sammler 4. Über die literarhistorischen Quellen des Suidas 5. Über die Quellen der Lexikographen
Zupancic, A. (2003). The shortest shadow: Nietzsche's philosophy of the two. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.^ a b See Mazzino Montinari and Paolo d'Iorio's comments about the edition of 'The Will to Power', in "'The Will to Power' does not exist" Sigrid Oloff-Montinari original italian edition;Centro Mon...^ See Barbara Stiegler, Nietzsche et la biologie PUF, 2001 ISBN 2130507425
Biography Meta von Salis was born in 1855 on her family's estate, Marschlins Castle, in Igis, Graubünden. Her parents were Ursula Margaretha and Ulysses Adalbert von Salis, a naturalist. She attended a girls' school in Friedrichshafen, Germany from 1863 to 1868, and then attended another girls' school in Rorschach, Switzerland until 1871.
Oct 18, 2020 · Friedrich Nietzsche was born in Saxony in 1844 to Lutheran parents. His father passed away five years later, and Nietzsche was largely raised by his female relatives, who sent him to boarding school and later to university, first at Bonn and then Leipzig. At university, Nietzsche studied classical literature and linguistics.
Nietzsche's gymnasium grades were mediocre, except in religion. However, his deceased father had been an employee of the state, and it was not uncommon for their children to receive admission to Pforta upon a satisfactory examination.
May 10, 2018 · It was a boy, named Hephaestus, and he was born lame, an imperfect specimen among the gods. Both parents were ambivalent to him, and Hera threw him out of Mount Olympus and into the ocean. He survived, became the god of blacksmiths, and took revenge on his mother by trapping her in a golden chair with invisible chains.
Mar 04, 2019 · Nietzsche and Wagner became close after Nietzsche began visiting Wagner, his wife Cosima, and their children at Tribschen, a beautiful house beside Lake Lucerne, about a two-hour train ride from Basle where Nietzsche was a professor of classical philology.
Drochon’s presentation of Nietzsche as a cultural elitist who views the state of his time as enemy brings to mind the libertarian elitism of H.L. Mencken, who, by no coincidence, wrote a book about Nietzsche’s philosophy. If Drochon’s account of Nietzsche’s politics is right, Mencken was a faithful Nietzschean in his politics. 1.
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