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    • When did the town of Łodz become an industrial center?

      • The big change arrived at the first quarter of the 19th century when it was decided on a massive industrialization program and transformation of the town to a large industrial center. Łódź itself, called Łódka, existed already in the 12th century, but the first records of this agricultural settlement date back to 1332.
  1. Łódź is located in central Poland and is the third-largest city in the country. For hundreds of years it was a non-important village. The big change arrived at the first quarter of the 19th century when it was decided on a massive industrialization program and transformation of the town to a large industrial center.

  2. In a word, Łódź was one of the huge industrial centers which mushroomed in the 19 th century across the globe, as it was positioned on the increasingly porous borderland between the Russian world-empire and European networks of knowledge and technology transfer .

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    • Introduction
    • Recovered Roots: Documenting The Holocaust in Liberated Poland
    • Spreading The Seeds: Polish Survivor Historians Beyond Poland
    • Conclusion

    “The blood of our martyrs, our relatives, is still fresh. It screams to us and calls upon us not to forget!” the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Łodz exhorted the 100,000-150,000 Holocaust survivors still in Poland in October 1946. Whether they had “spent the German occupation in ghettos, camps, on the Aryan side, hidden in the woods, [or] fighting in partisan units”, every surviving Jewish woman or man should provide the Historical Commission with a full account of their personal experiences during these years. As “precious material on our bloody history”, these accounts needed to be “carefully collected and immortalised”. The Commission also sought “pictures, documents, community registers, diaries and other items[…]. This is a duty for every single individual. We hope that everyone will understand the importance of this and will fulfil this duty towards the Jewish past”.1 The Central Jewish Historical Commission originated in Lublin in August 1944, just weeks after the ci...

    On August 29, 1944, five weeks after the Red Army liberated Lublin which then became the temporary capital of Soviet-controlled Polish territory, a handful of survivors founded a historical commission to document the destruction of Polish Jewry. In order “to get exact knowledge of what the Jewish cataclysm looked like”, the activists, none of them trained historians, gathered sources “from an exclusively Jewish point of view”,8 mainly eyewitness testimony from survivors in and around Lublin. Three months later, the Central Committee of Polish Jews—a newly founded body representing the roughly 280,000 Jews who then constituted the remnant of Polish Jewry—invited Philip Friedman to reorganise and direct the Commission.9 Hopes of reviving pre-war traditions of Polish-Jewish historiography may have informed this decision, as may the wish to entrust this onerous and significant task of researching the recent tragedy to the hands of someone who was both a survivor and a professional histo...

    Those who left Poland continued their research and established additional historical commissions in their places of temporary settlement, thus encouraging large numbers of survivors to record their traumatic experiences and rendering Jewish Holocaust research a trans-national phenomenon. Wherever they migrated, the former CŻKH affiliates disseminated the project they had begun in Poland: writing the history of the Holocaust as a narrative in which the Jews were the main actors, drawing from a great variety of historical sources from both the perpetrators of genocide and their victims. In spring 1946 Nella Rost, formerly the vice-director of CŻKH’s Krakow branch, opened a historical commission in Stockholm, where, following the model of the commission in Poland, she collected testimonies from Polish-Jewish refugees with the financial support of the World Jewish Congress; at the end of the year, the teacher Mejlech Bakalczuk founded a historical commission in Linz, in the U.S. Zone of...

    For the founders and researchers of the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland, the persecution experience provided the impetus to pursue historical research on the Holocaust, even for those who had no training in the historical profession. They led the way by compiling Holocaust archives of perpetrator and victim sources and promulgating historiographic approaches that did not reduce Jews to being objects of persecution and extermination, but treated them as historical agents in their own right. “We cannot rest content with a study of the persecutions and the reactions they provoked”, Philip Friedman contended in 1957. In fact, he saw ample need for “a history of the Jewish people during the period of Nazi rule in which the central role is to be played by the Jewish people, not only as tragic victims but as bearers of a communal existence with all the manifold and numerous aspects involved”. Friedman thus advocated a “Judeo-centric” rather than a “Nazi-centric” historiograp...

    • Laura Jockusch
    • 4
    • 2013
    • Introduction↑
    • Early Occupations of Imperial Russian Territory After 1915↑
    • A Brest-Litovsk Order?↑
    • A Never-Ending Story of War and Occupation?↑
    • Conclusion↑

    Various pictures come to mind when “Great War” and “East” are mentioned: troops marching through muddy streets lined by thatched huts; troops lying in deep snow-covered trenches somewhere in the Great Plains of Eastern Europe; soldiers on guard on the Carpathian Mountains’ northeastern slopes. These mental scenes have been shaped by wartime propaganda. But they also represent the spatial contrast to other fronts, like the Western, Gallipoli or Italian Fronts. The war in the East was highly mobile, but also had stationary phases, bogged down in heavily fortified trenches or forts (Przemysl 1914/15, etc.) or hindered by natural borders such as the Carpathian Mountains or the Pruth-Sereth Line. Major successful offensives made it possible to move hundreds of miles, as in the Russian advance into Galicia and Bukovina in 1914, the Tarnov-Gorlice Offensive in 1915, the Brusilov Offensive in 1916, and the Eisenbahnvormarsch (Railway Advance) into Ukraine in 1918. Since the turn of the mill...

    Contrary to pre-war expectations, Russian troops managed to stop the German troops along the East Prussian border and even enter German territory. In Austria-Hungary, the Russians occupied Bukovina, Galicia and entered northeastern Hungary in fall 1914. The complete breakdown of the Eastern Front and the collapse of the entire Habsburg Empire could only be avoided with the help of German troops – a doubtful reputation with which the old empire had to cope until the end of the war. After desperate winter fighting with heavy losses, the joint Tarnov-Gorlice campaign entirely changed the situation in May 1915. Within the following six months, the front was pushed more than 300 miles to the east. During the next three years, German territory was never in danger from the east. After this, Austria-Hungary was also largely safe and occupied foreign land in Eastern and South Eastern Europe,aside from the Russian advance in the Brusilov Offensive in summer 1916 and the short lived success of...

    Throughout December 1917, the delegations of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Bolshevik Russia arrived in snow-covered Brest-Litovsk. At the same time, Finland declared independence on 6 December 1917, Crimea followed on 13 December 1917, Ukraine on 22 January 1918, Lithuania on 16 February 1918, Estonia on 24 February 1918, Belarus on 25 March 1918 and Georgia on 26 May 1918. Germany, in particular, tried to use these independence movements to put pressure on the Bolsheviks. While the hunger strikes that first swept across Austria-Hungary in January 1918 and later Germany gave Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) hope that world revolution would soon spread westwards, the situation continued to worsen for the Bolsheviks. In Brest-Litovsk, a delegation of the Ukrainian Centralna Rada demanded that they be accepted as an independent participant of the negotiations. Lenin wanted to solve the problem by military force and sent Bolshevik troops from Russia and Kharkov to...

    But even this success in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus could not stop the breakdown of the Central Powers. Austria-Hungary imploded in October 1918, and Germany had to accept an armistice on 11 November 1918. But Article 12 of the Armistice of Compiégne obliged the Germans to keep their occupation troops in the East. The Entente needed someone to stop the Bolshevik guards from spreading westwards in this power vacuum while they started their own operations in the Caucasus and Ukraine to support anti-Bolshevik forces. In December 1918, a French-Greek expedition corps landed in Odessa, but had to withdraw in March 1919. Furthermore, the Entente supported Denikin in South Russia, and tried to secure their access to Russia and the goods stored there by interventions in Archangelsk and Murmansk. In the end, these operations were of limited success, but showed that the period of occupations was not over. The Russian Bolsheviks upheld their claim to Rossijskoj territory. This was not onl...

    One of the new tasks that the armies in the First World War had to face was the administration of occupied land. None of the belligerent countries had prepared for this before the war, because all of the general staff plans hoped for an intense, but short war, which would result in the integration of land. This is why occupation policy not only meant military administration and economic exploitation, but also a cultural project of transforming local culture. The Russians saw Galicia as their territory in fall 1914, and thus started with its integration into the empire. A similar situation existed for the land of the Ober Ost, which was considered German on account of Ostkolonisation and Hanse. On the other end of the spectrum there was the occupation of Ukraine, Bessarabia, Crimea, Georgia, and Volhynia, seen as a strategic tool to weaken Russia, whether under Czarist or Bolshevik rule, and to be economically exploitated. It was not clear until the postwar period to whom these lands...

  4. Jan 04, 2017 · Riga was an influential industrial centre, and, together with Liepāja, the most important Russian seaport (apart from Odessa on the Black Sea). The Estonian territories contained a fairly developed arms industry, mostly supporting the Russian Baltic Fleet. Lithuania was the least industrialised. The Russian food market

  5. In the industrial city of Łodz in Poland, at the time part of the Russian empire, a dynamic network of organisations was created at the start of the 20th century by reformist medical officers of ...

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