- Background: Early Proposals For Federation
- Reasons For Confederation
- Maritime Union
- Political Deadlock in The Province of Canada
- The Great Coalition of 1864
- Charlottetown Conference
- Quebec Conference
- Atlantic Canada and Confederation
- Indigenous Peoples and Confederation
- London Conference
According to historian P.B. Waite, “Confederation appeared in Canada in fits and starts.” The union of the British North American colonies was an idea Lord Durham discussed in his 1839 Report on the Affairs of British North America. The Durham Report, as it came to be known, called for the union of Upper and Lower Canada. This was achieved in 1841 following the Act of Union. Upper and Lower Canada were renamed Canada West and Canada East, respectively. They were governed by a single legislature as the Province of Canada. In 1849, the Montreal-based Annexation Association called for the annexation of the Province of Canada by the United States. In response to this, the British American League, a Tory association, called for a study of a union of the British North American colonies. Between 1856 and 1859, union was discussed with some frequency in newspapers and in Canada’s legislature. It was usually proposed as a remedy for a political or economiccrisis. The call for a federation of...
Negotiations for the union of British North America gained traction in the 1860s. By that time, Confederation had been a long-simmering idea. Confederation was inspired in part by fears that British North America would be dominated and even annexed by the United States. (See also: Manifest Destiny.) These fears grew following the American Civil War(1861–65). The violence and chaos of the Civil War shocked many in British North America. They saw the war as partly the result of a weak central government in the US. This inspired ideas about the need for a strong central government among the BNA colonies. (See also: Federalism.) Many in the BNA colonies also believed that Britain was increasingly reluctant to defend them against possible American aggression. After winning the war, the American North was left with a large and powerful army. There was talk in US newspapers of invading and annexing Canada. This would have be done to avenge Britain’s collaboration with the American South du...
By 1864, Confederation had become a serious issue in the Province of Canada (formerly Lower Canada and Upper Canada). In the Atlanticcolonies, however, a great deal of pressure would still be needed. A series of fortuitous events helped. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had been divided in 1784. There was interest in both regions in reuniting. They were helped by the British Colonial Office. It felt that a political union of all three Maritime colonies, including Prince Edward Island, was desirable. Maritime union would abolish three colonial legislatures and replace them with one. In the spring of 1864, all three legislatures declared an interest in having a conference on the subject. But nothing was done. Once the Province of Canada announced an interest in attending such a meeting, the Maritime governments began to organize. Charlottetown was appointed as the place — PEI officials would not attend otherwise — and 1 September 1864 was chosen as the date. (See also: Charlottetown Conf...
The Province of Canada was growing more prosperous and populous. It was rapidly developing politically, socially and industrially. As it did, its internal rivalries also grew. As a result, the job of governing Canada West (now Ontario) and Canada East (now Quebec) from a single legislature became difficult. (See also: Act of Union.) After achieving responsible government, politicians in Canada West began calling for true representation by population. In the 1840s, Canada West benefitted from having a disproportionately large number of seats in the legislature. (It had a smaller populationthan Canada East, but the same number of seats.) By the 1850s, the population of Canada West was the bigger of the two. Reformers then supported the campaign for “rep by pop.” This would mean more seats for the West. This and other divisive issues — such as government funding for Catholic schools throughout the colony — made English Protestants in Canada West suspicious of French Catholic power in C...
By 1864, four short-lived governments had fought to stay in power in the Province of Canada. Canada West’s two principal groups — the Conservatives (led by John A. Macdonald) and Clear Grits (led by George Brown) — formed an alliance. It was known as the Great Coalition. It sought a union with the Atlantic colonies. Three of the Province of Canada’s four major political groups supported the coalition. This gave Confederation a driving force that it never lost. It allowed Confederation to proceed with support from British North America’s most populous region. In Canada East, Confederation was opposed by A.A. Dorion’s Parti rouge. But it was supported by the dominant political group, the conservative Parti bleu. The Parti bleu was led by George-Étienne Cartier, Hector Langevin and Alexander Galt. By 1867, they had the necessary support of the Catholic Church. Confederation was justified on the grounds that French Canadians would get back their provincial identity. Their capital would...
The “Canadians” sailed to the Charlottetown Conference on 29 August 1864. They travelled aboard the Canadian government steamer SS Queen Victoria. The conference was already underway. Discussions for Maritimeunion were not making much progress. The Canadians were invited to submit their own proposals for a union of the BNA colonies. The idea of a united country quickly took over. (See also: The Charlottetown Conference of 1864: The Persuasive Power of Champagne.)
A month later, the colonies called a second meeting to discuss Confederation. At the Quebec Conference, the delegates passed 72 Resolutions. These explicitly laid out the fundamental decisions made at Charlottetown, including a constitutionalframework for a new country. The Resolutions were legalistic and contractual in tone. They were deliberately different from the revolutionary tone of the American Constitution, which had been drafted a century earlier. (See also: Quebec Conference of 1864; Constitutional History.) The Canadian Resolutions outlined the concept of federalism. Powers and responsibilities would be divided between the provinces and the federal government. (See also: Distribution of Powers.) Cartier pushed hard for provincial powers and rights. Macdonald was keen to avoid the mistakes that had led to the US Civil War. He advocated for a strong central government. A semblance of balance was reached between these two ideas. The Resolutions also outlined the shape of a n...
The Atlantic colonies of Newfoundland, PEI, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were more satisfied with the status quo than Canada West. All except Newfoundland enjoyed prosperous economies. They felt comfortable as they were. The bulk of the population, especially in Nova Scotia and PEI, saw no reason to change their constitutionjust because Canada had outgrown its own. Even Newfoundland, despite economic difficulties in the 1860s, postponed a decision on Confederation in 1865. In an election in 1869, they decisively rejected it. (See also: Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation.) The more prosperous PEI resisted almost from the start. A small, dedicated group of Confederationists made little headway until early in the 1870s. At that time, PEI was badly indebted by the construction of a railway. It joined Confederation in 1873 in return for Canada taking over its loan payments. (See also: PEI and Confederation.) Nova Scotians were divided. Confederation was popular in the northern...
Indigenous peoples were not invited to or represented at the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences. This despite the fact they had established what they believed to be bilateral (nation-to-nation) relationships and commitments with the Crown through historic treaties. (See also: Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada; Royal Proclamation of 1763.) The Fathers of Confederation, however, held dismissive, paternalistic views of Indigenous peoples. As a result, Canada’s first peoples were excluded from formal discussions about unifying the country. Confederation had a significant impact on Indigenous communities. In 1867, the federal government assumed responsibility over Indigenous affairs from the colonies. With the purchase of Rupert’s Land in 1870, the Dominion of Canadaextended its influence over the Indigenous peoples living in that region. The Dominion wanted to develop, settle and claim these lands, as well as those in the surrounding area. From 1871 to 1921, the federal gover...
British Colonial Secretary Edward Cardwell was a strong supporter of Confederation. He felt that the cost of defending the BNA colonies against potential US aggression was too high. He vigorously instructed his governors in North America to promote the idea, which they did. Confederation meant Canada would have to pay for its own defence, rather than relying on British support. The London Conference (December 1866 to February 1867), was the final stage of translating the 72 Resolutions of 1864 into legislation. The result was the British North America Act, 1867 (now the Constitution Act, 1867). It was passed by the British Parliament and was signed by Queen Victoria on 29 March 1867. It was proclaimed into law on 1 July 1867. (See: Canada Day.)
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defense, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the general government being required to provide support for all its members.
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provinces within Confederation that would ensure the continuation of the French language and Catholic religion in Canada. The Catholic Church continued to play an influential role in the politics of Canada East — a role that Cartier supported. Catholic people generally consulted the clergy before making important decisions.
Beliefs. Old Catholic theology views the Eucharist as the core of the Christian Church.From that point the church is a community of believers. All are in communion with one another around the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, as the highest expression of the love of God.
The Catholic unions were reorganized at the end of WWI, stressing protection of members' rights and interests as workers. Anxious to unite their forces, they jointly formed the Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour in 1921 with about 17 600 members.
The Great Coalition was a coalition formed in 1923 by the 4 main pro-democratic parties within the Reichstag: The SPD, a moderate socialist party. The Centre Party, a centrist Catholic party. The DVP, a centre-right party led by Gustav Stresemann.
May 15, 2020 · Fathers of Confederation. The Fathers of Confederation are the men who attended one or more of the conferences at Charlottetown, Quebec and London. William McDougall, Manitoba’s first lieutenant-governor, is considered a Father of Confederation for Manitoba.
Still before the Sejm’s end in February 1768, in a small non-defensive town in Podolia the betrayed malcontents formed a confederation, formally a revival of the Radom Confederation. The objective was to liquidate the dissidents’ political equality, which was regarded as an act in defence of the Catholic religion.
Jun 24, 2019 · It was no secret that Archbishop Edward Patrick Roche, the leader of the Catholic Church in St. John’s during the referendum debates in Newfoundland in 1948 was strongly opposed to Newfoundland joining Confederation. He took every opportunity that he could to encourage “his people” to vote for Responsible Government.
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