The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law. It establishes the organization of the government and sets out the principles and rules of the state's conduct along with its responsibilities in regards to its citizens. The constitution also establishes the rights and responsibilities of the latter while setting the guidelines for the delegation and exercise of sovereignty that belongs to the Turkish people. The constitution was rat
Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be characterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and recognition of international law . The Turkish constitution was ratified in 1921, revised in 1924, 1961, 1982, and most recently in 2010.
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Turkey is a regional power and a newly industrialized country, with a geopolitically strategic location. Its economy, which is classified among the emerging and growth-leading economies, is the twentieth-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the eleventh-largest by PPP.
- Text (as enacted)
The Constitution of 1921 was the fundamental law of Turkey for a brief period from 1921 to 1924. The first constitution of the modern Turkish state, it was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in January 1921. It was a simple document consisting of only 23 short articles. In October 1923 the constitution was amended to declare Turkey to be a republic. In April the following year the constitution was replaced by an entirely new document, the Constitution of 1924.
It was prepared by the Grand National Assembly that was elected both as a Constitutional Convention and as an acting Parliament on April 23, 1920, following the de facto collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the First World War. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who would later become the first president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, was the major driving force behind the preparation of a Constitution that derived its sovereignty from the nation and not from the Sultan, the absolute ...
The National Assembly commenced the debates for a new constitution on November 19, 1920 and it was ratified during the session of January 20, 1921. It was the first Turkish Constitution that consecrated the principle of national sovereignty. It was a relatively short text consisting of twenty-three articles, the first nine articles laying out the principles upon which the state would be founded. It delegated the executive and legislative prerogatives to "the only true delegate of the sovereignty
After having come into force on January 20, 1921, it stayed as the law of the land for three years until the adoption of the Constitution of 1924. During this time it witnessed many extremely important and fundamental events in the history of the Republic of Turkey: 1. The Turkish War of Independence was won by the Turkish forces 2. The Ottoman Sultanate and all aristocratic titles were abolished on November 1, 1922 3. The Treaty of Lausanne that led to the international recognition of the new R
The text of the first nine articles may be translated as follows: Article 1: Sovereignty is vested in the nation without condition. The governmental system is based on the principle of self-determination and government by the people. Article 2: Executive power and legislative responsibility is exercised by and concentrated in the hands of the Grand National Assembly which is the sole and real representative of the nation. Article 3: The Turkish State is governed by the Grand National Assembly an
The Constitution of 1924, formally titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1924 to 1961. It replaced the Constitution of 1921 and was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey following the proclamation of the republic on October 29, 1923. It was ratified on April 20, 1924. It remained in force until the 1960 coup d'état, following which it was replaced by the Constitution of 1961.
The Constitution of 1961, officially titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1961 to 1982. It was introduced following the 1960 coup d'état, replacing the earlier Constitution of 1924. It was approved in a referendum held on 9 July 1961, with 61.7% of the nation voting in favor. It remained in force until the 1980 coup d'état, following which it was replaced by a new document, the Constitution of 1982, which remains in force today.