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  1. Dictionary
    Dnie·per
    /ˈnēpər/
    • 1. a river in eastern Europe that rises in Russia west of Moscow and flows south for about 1,370 miles (2,200 km) through Ukraine to the Black Sea.
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › DnieperDnieper - Wikipedia

    The Dnieper / ( də) ˈniːpər / is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and Belarus and the fourth- longest river in Europe, after Volga, Danube and Ural.

    • Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
    • Dnieper Delta
  3. Dnieper definition, a river rising in the W Russian Federation flowing S through Byelorussia (Belarus) and Ukraine to the Black Sea. 1,400 miles (2,250 km) long. See more.

    • Strategic Situation
    • Planning
    • Description of The Strategic Operation
    • Western Bank Operations
    • Outcomes
    • Casualties Debate
    • References

    Following the Battle of Kursk, the German High Command was no longer in a position to mount large-scale offensives against the Red Army in the East. During the long retreat after Kursk, the Wehrmacht{'}s Heer and supporting Luftwaffe forces had managed to cross the Dnieper river to the West and reestablished the defences along the Wotan fortified line. The crossing of the Dnieper was accomplished by thousands of German soldiers in small rafts and boats while under continuous air and ground attack by pursuing Soviet forces. German losses in men and materiél had been considerable, many of the experienced units were weakened. This meant that the Wehrmacht forces had to adopt an operational sustained defence against the Soviet Fronts. On occasions Wehrmacht tactical counter-attacks did meet with considerable success, but this could not be translated into a return of the strategic initiative lost at Kursk. While the strength in personnel, materiél and logistical support of the Wehrmachtf...

    Soviet planning

    The operation begun on 24 August 1943 with divisions starting to move on a 1,400-kilometer front stretching between Smolensk and the Sea of Azov.

    German planning

    The order to construct the Dnieper defence complex, known as "Eastern Wall", was issued on 11 August 1943 and began to be immediately executed. Fortifications were erected along the length of the Dnieper. However, there was no hope of completing such an extensive defensive line in the short time available. Therefore, the completion of the "Eastern Wall" was not uniform in its density and depth of fortifications. Instead, they were concentrated in areas where a Soviet assault-crossing were mos...

    Initial attack

    Despite a great superiority in numbers, the offensive was by no means easy. German opposition was ferocious and the fighting raged for every town and city. The Wehrmachtmade extensive use of rear guards, leaving some troops in each city and on each hill, slowing down the Soviet offensive.

    Progress of the offensive

    Three weeks after the start of the offensive, and despite heavy losses on the Soviet side, it became clear that the Germans could not hope to contain the Soviet offensive in the flat, open terrain of the steppes, where the Red Army's numerical strength would prevail. Manstein asked for as many as 12 new divisions in the hope of containing the Soviet offensive – but German reserves were perilously thin. Years later, Manstein wrote in his memoirs:

    Decisive action

    As a result, on 15 September 1943, Hitler ordered Army Group South to retreat to the Dnieper defence line. The battle for Poltava was especially bitter. The city was heavily fortified and its garrison well prepared. After a few inconclusive days that greatly slowed down the Soviet offensive, Marshal Konev decided to bypass the city and rush towards the Dnieper. After two days of violent urban warfare, the Poltava garrison was overcome. Towards the end of September 1943, Soviet forces reached...

    Lower Dnieper offensive

    By mid-October, the forces accumulated on the lower Dnieper bridgeheads were strong enough to stage a first massive attack to definitely secure river's western shore in the southern part of the front. Therefore, a vigorous attack was staged on the Kremenchuk-Dnipropetrovsk line. Simultaneously, a major diversion was conducted in the south to draw German forces away both from the Lower Dnieper and from Kiev. At the end of the offensive, Soviet forces controlled a bridgehead 300 kilometers wide...

    Criticisms

    Stalin's determination to recover Kiev before 7 November has raised quite a few criticisms among historians. It is commonly accepted now that the bridgeheads on the Lower Dnieper were deliberately "left alone" to draw German forces from Kiev, resulting in heavy losses. While this hypothesis could be true to some extent, one must not forget that the action of establishing a bridgehead alone is dangerous enough and can (and usually does) lead to heavy casualties.

    The Battle of Dnieper was another defeat for the Wehrmacht that required it to restabilize the front further West. The Red Army, which Hitler hoped to contain at the Dnieper, forced the Wehrmacht's defences. Kiev was recaptured and German troops lacked the forces to annihilate Soviet troops on the Lower Dnieper bridgeheads. The west bank was still in German hands for the most part, but both sides knew that it would not last for long. Additionally, the Battle of Dnieper demonstrated the strength of the Soviet partisan movement. The "rail war" operation staged during September and October 1943 struck German logistics very hard, creating heavy supply issues. Incidentally, between 28 November and 1 December 1943 the Teheran conference was held between Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Stalin. The Battle of Dnieper, along with other major offensives staged in 1943, certainly gave Stalin a dominant position for negotiating with his Allies.

    Casualties during the Battle of Dnieper are still a subject of heavy debate. Some sources give very low figures (200,000 to 300,000 total casualties), which is much lower than for instance, the Battle of Kursk. However, given the duration of the campaign and the huge area involved, more than one historian argues that the losses involved were huge, easily reaching or even surpassing those at the Stalingrad, but going "unnoticed" because of the large operational area (and of the aura of fame enveloping the latter). The death toll also depends on the time frame considered. It also depends on whether the toll of the Battle of Smolensk, which was fought to draw German forces away from the area in which the Dnieper battle would be held, is included in the total. On the subject of Soviet casualties, Nikolaï Shefov in his Russian fights puts the figure of 373,000 killed in action (KIA) and more than 1,500,000 total Soviet casualties. British historian John Erickson, in his Barbarossa: The A...

    David M. Glantz, Jonathan M. House, When Titans Clashed:how the Red Army stopped Hitler, University Press of Kansas, 1995
    Nikolai Shefov, Russian fights, Lib. Military History, Moscow, 2002
    History of Great Patriotic War, 1941 — 1945. Мoscow, 1963
    John Erickson, Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, Edinburgh University Press, 1994
    • Etymology
    • Geography
    • Reservoirs and Hydroelectric Power
    • Regions and Cities
    • Navigation
    • The Dnieper in The Arts
    • Ecology
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The name Dnieper is derived from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side". (By contrast, the Dniester derives from "the close river".) According to V. Abaev (expert on Scytho-Sarmatian languages) the name Dnieper derives from Scythian Dānu apr (Dānapr) "deep river", while the name Dniester is combination of Scythian Dānu (river) and Thracian Ister, the old name of Dniester. In the three countries through which it flows it has essentially the same name, albeit pronounced differently: 1. Russian: Днепр (Dnepr, [dnʲepr]); 2. Belarusian: Дняпро (Dnyapro, [dnʲaˈpro]) or Днепр (Dnyepr, [dnʲepr]); 3. Ukrainian: Днiпро (Dnipro, [dnʲiˈpro]) or Дніпер (Dniper, [ˈdnʲipɛr]). The river is mentioned by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης), as well as by Strabo; this name is Scythian (cf. Iranian *varu-stāna) and translates as "wide land", referring most likely to the Ukrainian steppe.[citation needed] The late Greek and Roman authors call...

    The total length of the river is 2,145 kilometres (1,333 mi), of which 485 km (301 mi) are within Russia, 700 km (430 mi) are within Belarus, and 1,095 km (680 mi) are within Ukraine. Its basin covers 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi), of which 289,000 km2 (112,000 sq mi) are within Ukraine, 118,360 km2 (45,700 sq mi) are within Belarus. The source of the Dnieper is the turf swamps (Akseninsky Mokh) of the Valdai Hills in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m (720 ft). For 115 km (71 mi) of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus and Ukraine. Its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv.[citation needed] On the Dnepr River to the south of Komarin urban-type settlement, Braghin District, Gomel Region the southern extreme point of Belarusis situated.

    From the mouth of Prypiat River to Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station is a cascade of dams and hydroelectric stations. The most noted was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station or (DniproHES) near Zaporizhia, built in 1927–1932 with an output of 558 MW.[citation needed] It was destroyed during the Second World War, and rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.[citation needed] The others are: Kakhovka (1950–56), Kremenchuk (1954–60), Kiev (1960–64), Dniprodzerzhynsk (1956–64), Kaniv(1963–75). Those dams that used to generate hydroelectric power of ten percent of Ukraine's total electricity, form water reservoirs. The reservoirs are Kiev (922 km2 or 356 sq mi), Kaniv (675 km2 or 261 sq mi), Kremenchuk (2,250 km2 or 870 sq mi), Dniprodzerzhynsk (567 km2 or 219 sq mi), Dnipro (420 km2 or 160 sq mi), and Kakhovka (2,155 km2 or 832 sq mi).[citation needed]

    Regions

    1. The Dnieper River in different regions 2. The Dnieper River in Kherson, Ukraine 3. The Dnieper River in Dorogobuzh, Russian Empire, before 1917 4. The Dnieper River in Kremenchuk, Ukraine

    Cities

    Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine): Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.

    Almost 2,000 km (1,200 mi) of the river is navigational (to the city of Dorogobuzh). The Dnieper is important for the transport and economy of Ukraine[citation needed]: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 metres (886 ft × 59 ft) to access as far as the port of Kiev and thus create an important transport corridor.[citation needed] The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danubeand Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades. Upstream from Kiev, the Dnieper receives the water of the Pripyat River. This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal, the link with the Bug River. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir without a ship lock near the town of Bresthas interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus mean there is little likelihood of re-opening this waterway in the near future. Navigation is...

    The Dnieper in the arts
    Catherine II leaving Kaniów in 1787 by Johann Gottlieb Plersch
    Ice in the Dnepr by Ivan Aivazovsky, 1872
    Moonlit Night on the Dniepr by Arkhip Kuindzhi, 1882

    The Dnieper River is close to the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant radioactive dumps (near Dniprodzerzhynsk), and susceptible to leakages of radioactive waste. The river is also close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Chernobyl Exclusion Zone) that is located next to the mouth of the Prypiat River.

    "Комсомольская правда" об угрозах плотины Киевской ГЭС и водохранилища
    "Аргументы и факты" о реальных угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС
    "Известия" о проблематике плотины Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС
    Эксперт УНИАН об угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища
  4. Dnieper River, river of Europe, the fourth longest after the Volga, Danube, and Ural. It is 1,367 miles (2,200 km) in length and drains an area of about 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km). The Dnieper rises at an elevation of about 720 feet (220 metres) in a small peat bog on the southern

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