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  1. When is it considered night time? - Answers › Q › When_is_it_considered_night_time

    Nov 26, 2008 · Generally, evening is considered to begin when the sun's gone down and it's beginning to get dark, but generally it could be pinned down to after office hours - around five pm. When it's fully...

  2. Midnight - Wikipedia › wiki › Midnight

    Solar midnight, or dark night, [not verified in body] is the time opposite to solar noon, when the Sun is closest to the nadir, and the night is equidistant from dusk and dawn. Due to the advent of time zones , which regularize time across a range of meridians , and daylight saving time , solar midnight rarely coincides with 12 midnight on the ...

  3. Telling Time without a Clock: The Scandinavian Daymarks › ECT › Daymarks

    Aug 18, 1998 · When the daylight lasted a long time during the summer, their daylight "hours" could be as long as 75 minutes, while the nighttime "hours" were only 45 minutes long. In winter, however, when the Sun was not up as long, their "hours" might shrink to as short as about 55 minutes during the day, while at night they were about 70 minutes.

  4. Holidays Work Schedules and Pay - › holidays-work-schedules-and-pay
    • Designation of Holidays
    • Pay on A Holiday
    • Overtime on Holidays
    • Work on Holidays
    • References

    Holidays for Federal Employees

    1. New Year's Day (January 1). 2. Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Third Monday in January). 3. Washington's Birthday (Third Monday in February). 4. Memorial Day (Last Monday in May). 5. Independence Day (July 4). 6. Labor Day (First Monday in September). 7. Columbus Day (Second Monday in October). 8. Veterans Day (November 11). 9. Thanksgiving Day (Fourth Thursday in November). 10. Christmas Day (December 25).

    Presidential Inauguration Day

    Federal employees in the Washington, DC, area are entitled to a holiday on the day a President is inaugurated (January 20 following a Presidential election). Employees are entitled to this holiday if they are employed in- 1. the District of Columbia; 2. Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland; 3. Arlington and Fairfax Counties in Virginia; and 4. the cities of Alexandria and Falls Church in Virginia. When Inauguration Day is moved to January 21st because January 20th falls on Sunda...

    "In Lieu of" Holidays

    All full-time employees, including those on flexible or compressed work schedules, are entitled to an "in lieu of" holiday when a holiday falls on a nonworkday. In such cases, the employee's holiday is the basic workday immediately preceding the nonworkday. A basic workday for this purpose includes a day when part of the basic work requirement for an employee under a flexible work schedule is planned or scheduled to be performed. There are three exceptions: 1. If the nonworkday is Sunday (or...

    Full-time Employees

    Full-time employees who are not required to work on a holiday receive their rate of basic pay for the applicable number of holiday hours. Standard (40-Hour/5-Day Week) Work Schedules. On a holiday, employees under a standard work schedule are generally excused from 8 hours of nonovertime work, which are considered part of the 40-hour basic workweek. Flexible Work Schedules. On a holiday, employees under flexible work schedules are credited with 8 hours towards their 80-hour basic work require...

    Part-time Employees

    A part-time employee is entitled to a holiday when the holiday falls on a day when he or she would otherwise be required to work or take leave. This does not include overtime work. Part-time employees who are excused from work on a holiday receive their rate of basic pay for the hours they are regularly scheduled to work on that day. Standard (40-Hour/5-Day Week) Work Schedules. On a holiday, part-time employees under standard work schedules are generally excused from duty for the number of b...

    Pay Status of Employees

    Employees must be in a pay status or a paid time off status (i.e., leave, compensatory time off, compensatory time off for travel, or credit hours) on their scheduled workdays either before or after a holiday in order to be entitled to their regular pay for that day. Employees who are in a non-pay status for the workdays immediately before and after a holiday may not receive compensation for that holiday.

    Overtime Work on a Holiday

    Standard (40-Hour/5-Day Week) Work Schedules. Overtime work on a holiday is work in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week. This also applies to part-time employees. Flexible Work Schedules. Overtime work on a holiday for employees under flexible work schedules is work in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week that is officially ordered in advance. (See 5 U.S.C. 6121(6).) Compressed Work Schedules. Overtime work on a holiday for an employee under a compressed work schedule...

    Overtime Pay On a Holiday

    Employees are entitled to overtime pay, or compensatory time off, when applicable, if the agency requires overtime work on a holiday. Overtime work must generally be ordered or approved. However, employees who are covered by the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (FLSA), also are entitled to overtime pay if overtime work is "suffered or permitted" by a supervisor. One exception is that no "suffered and permitted" hours of work can be credited to employ...

    Night Work

    Employees are entitled to night pay for regularly scheduled work at night, including actual work performed at night during holiday hours or overtime hours. Night pay is paid in addition to holiday premium pay or overtime pay. (See 5 CFR 550.122(c).) Employees also are entitled to night pay when they are excused from regularly scheduled night work during holiday hours. A General Schedule employee who is excused from night work during holiday hours receives his or her rate of basic pay plus nig...

    Sunday Work

    An employee is entitled to holiday premium pay and Sunday premium pay if he or she is required to work during holiday hours on Sunday and Sunday work is part of the employee's regularly scheduled basic workweek (or basic work requirement). If an employee does not work during the holiday hours on Sunday, the employee receives basic pay for the holiday hours, but is not entitled to Sunday premium pay. This is because Sunday premium pay cannot be paid unless an employee actually performs work on...

    5 U.S.C. 6103, 6104, and 6124
    E.O. 11582 of February 11, 1971
    5 CFR 550.103 (definition of holiday work), 550.131 and 132
    5 CFR 610.201 and 202, and 610.405 through 407
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  6. Sleep deprivation - Wikipedia › wiki › Sleep_deprivation
    • Causes
    • Effects and Consequences
    • Assessment
    • Management
    • Uses
    • Changes in American Sleep Habits
    • Longest Periods Without Sleep


    Insomnia, one of the six types of dyssomnia, affects 21–37% of the adult population. Many of its symptoms are easily recognizable, including excessive daytime sleepiness; frustration or worry about sleep; problems with attention, concentration, or memory; extreme mood changes or irritability; lack of energy or motivation; poor performance at school or work; and tension headaches or stomach aches. Insomnia can be grouped into primary and secondary, or comorbid, insomnia. Primary insomnia is a...

    Sleep apnea

    Obstructive sleep apnea is often caused by collapse of the upper airway during sleep, which reduces airflow to the lungs. Those who suffer from sleep apnea may experience symptoms such as awakening gasping or choking, restless sleep, morning headaches, morning confusion or irritability and restlessness. This disorder affects between 1 and 10 percent of Americans. It has many serious health outcomes if untreated. Positive airway pressure therapy using a CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressur...


    Sleep deprivation can sometimes be self-imposed due to a lack of desire to sleep or the habitual use of stimulant drugs. Sleep deprivation is also self-imposed to achieve personal fame in the context of record-breaking stunts.


    One study suggested, based on neuroimaging, that 35 hours of total sleep deprivation in healthy controls negatively affected the brain's ability to put an emotional event into the proper perspective and make a controlled, suitable response to the event. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on alertness and cognitive performance suggest decreases in brain activity and function. These changes primarily occur in two regions: the thalamus, a structure involved in alertness and attention; and...

    Attention and working memory

    Among the possible physical consequences of sleep deprivation, deficits in attention and working memory are perhaps the most important; such lapses in mundane routines can lead to unfortunate results, from forgetting ingredients while cooking to missing a sentence while taking notes. Performing tasks that require attention appears to be correlated with number of hours of sleep received each night, declining as a function of hours of sleep deprivation.Working memory is tested by methods such a...


    Many people already know that sleep affects mood. Staying up all night or taking an unexpected night shift can make one feel irritable. Once one catches up on sleep, one's mood will often return to baseline or normal. Even partial sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on mood. In one study, subjects reported increased sleepiness, fatigue, confusion, tension, and total mood disturbance, which all recovered to their baseline after one to two full nights of sleep. Depression and sleep...

    Patients suffering from sleep deprivation may present with complaints of symptoms and signs of insufficient sleep such as fatigue, sleepiness, drowsy driving, and cognitive difficulties. Sleep insufficiency can easily go unrecognized and undiagnosed unless patients are specifically asked about it by their clinicians. Several questions are critical in evaluating sleep duration and quality, as well as the cause of sleep deprivation. Sleep patterns (typical bed time or rise time on weekdays and weekends), shift work, and frequency of naps can reveal the direct cause of poor sleep, and quality of sleep should be discussed to rule out any diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. Sleep diaries are useful in providing detailed information about sleep patterns. They are inexpensive, readily available, and easy to use. The diaries can be as simple as a 24-hour log to note the time of being asleep or can be detailed to include other relevant information.Sleep questi...

    Although there are numerous causes of sleep deprivation, there are some fundamental measures that promote quality sleep as suggested by organizations such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Health, the National Institute of Aging, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. The key is to implement healthier sleep habits, also known as sleep hygiene.Sleep hygiene recommendations include setting a fixed sleep schedule, taking naps with caution, maintaining a sleep environment that promotes sleep (cool temperature, limited exposure to light and noise, comfortable mattress and pillows), exercising daily, avoiding alcohol, cigarettes, caffeine, and heavy meals in the evening, winding down and avoiding electronic use or physical activities close to bedtime, and getting out of bed if unable to fall asleep. For long term involuntary sleep deprivation, cognitive behavioral therapy for Insomnia (CBT-i) is commonly recommended as a first-line treatment,...

    To facilitate abusive control

    Sleep deprivation can be used to disorientate abuse victims to help set them up for abusive control.


    Sleep deprivation can be used as a means of interrogation, which has resulted in court trials over whether or not the technique is a form of torture. Under one interrogation technique, a subject might be kept awake for several days and when finally allowed to fall asleep, suddenly awakened and questioned. Menachem Begin, the Prime Minister of Israel from 1977 to 1983, described his experience of sleep deprivation as a prisoner of the NKVDin Soviet Union as follows: Sleep deprivation was one o...

    Treating depression

    Studies show that sleep restriction has some potential in treating depression. Those who suffer from depression tend to have earlier occurrences of REM sleep with an increased number of rapid eye movements; therefore, monitoring patients' EEG and awakening them during occurrences of REM sleep appear to have a therapeutic effect, alleviating depressive symptoms. This kind of treatment is known as wake therapy. Although as many as 60% of patients show an immediate recovery when sleep-deprived,...

    National Geographic Magazine has reported that the demands of work, social activities, and the availability of 24-hour home entertainment and Internet access have caused people to sleep less now than in premodern times. USA Todayreported in 2007 that most adults in the USA get about an hour less than the average sleep time 40 years ago. Other researchers have questioned these claims. A 2004 editorial in the journal Sleepstated that according to the available data, the average number of hours of sleep in a 24-hour period has not changed significantly in recent decades among adults. Furthermore, the editorial suggests that there is a range of normal sleep time required by healthy adults, and many indicators used to suggest chronic sleepiness among the population as a whole do not stand up to scientific scrutiny. A comparison of data collected from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey from 1965–1985 and 1998–2001 has been used to show that the median amount of sleep...

    Randy Gardner holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind. Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours (11 days), breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu. LCDRJohn J. Ross of the U.S. Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well known among sleep-deprivation researchers. The Guinness World Record stands at 449 hours (18 days, 17 hours), held by Maureen Weston, of Peterborough, Cambridgeshirein April 1977, in a rocking-chair marathon. Claims of total sleep deprivation lasting years have been made several times, but none are scientifically verified. Claims of partial sleep deprivation are better documented. For example, Rhett Lamb of St. Petersburg, Florida was initially reported to not sleep at all, but actually had a rare condition permitting him to sleep only one to two hours per day in t...

  7. The myth of the eight-hour sleep - BBC News › news › magazine-16964783

    Feb 22, 2012 · Night became fashionable and spending hours lying in bed was considered a waste of time. "People were becoming increasingly time-conscious and sensitive to efficiency, certainly before the 19th ...

  8. Night | Definition of Night at › browse › night

    What is a basic definition of night? Night refers to the time of day between sunset and sunrise. The word night can also refer to the darkness that accompanies this period or an evening reserved for a certain event. Night can also be used as an adjective to describe something that happens at night.

  9. DAKSHINAYANA (Karkataka Sankramana) > What is Dakshinayana ... › bhagavanknl › posts

    It is also said that Uttarayana is the day time and Dakshinayana is the night time for devathas. Dakshinayana is also called as Pithraayana. It is said and believed that Pithrus descend on Earth during the period of Dakshinayana awaiting their off-springs to perform sacred rites enabling them to attain better placement in the other worlds.

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