Öljaitü was born as the son of Arghun and his third wife, Keraite Christian Uruk Khatun on 24 March 1282 during his father's viceroyalty in Khorasan. He was given the name Khar-banda (Mule driver) at birth, raised as Buddhist and later baptised in 1291, receiving the name Nikolya (Nicholas) after Pope Nicholas IV.
- Islamic Conversion
- Relations with Europe
- See Also
Oljeitu was the son of Arghun's third wife, the Christian Uruk Khatun. Oljeitu was baptised as a Christian and received the name Nicholas after Pope Nicholas IV. In his youth he at first converted to Buddhism but then to Sunni Islam together with his brother Ghazan. He later converted to Shi'a Islam after coming into contact with Shi'a scholars, although another source indicates he converted to Islam through the persuasions of his wife. He changed his first name to the Islamic name Muhammad. Some of his relatives and companions gave him a nickname of Khutabanda. Rashid al-Din wrote that he adopted the name Oljeitu following Yuan emperor Oljeitu Temür enthroned in Dadu. But some Muslim source mentions that it rained when he was born, and delighted Mongols called him Mongolian name Öljeitu (Өлзийт), meaning auspicious. After succeeding his brother, Öljeitu was greatly under the influence of Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani. In 1306, Oljeitu founded the city of Soltani...
Trading contacts with European powers were intense during the reign of Öljeitu. The Genoese had first appear in the capital of Tabriz in 1280, and they had a Consul in residence by 1304. Oljeitu also gave full trading rights to the Venetians through a treaty in 1306 (another such treaty with his son Abu Said was signed in 1320). According to Marco Polo, Tabriz was specialized in the production of gold and silk, and Western merchants could purchase precious stones in quantities.
After his predecessor Arghun, Öljeitu continued diplomatic overtures with the West, and re-stated Mongol hopes for an alliance between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks, even though Öljeitu himself had converted to Islam.Hazara peopleOlcaytoAtwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.(ISBN 0-295-98391-4) page 87Foltz, Richard, Religions of the Silk Road, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1Jackson, Peter, The Mongols and the West, Pearson Education, ISBN 0-582-36896-0
The mausoleum of Öljaitü at Soltaniyeh, Iran. Oljeitu was the son of Arghun's third wife, the Christian Uruk Khatun. Oljeitu was baptised as a Christian and received the name Nikolya (Nicholas) after Pope Nicholas IV. During his youth he converted to Buddhism and later to Sunni Islam along with his brother Ghazan.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Mongolian: ᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢᠲᠦ ᠺᠬᠠᠨ, romanized: Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (Persian: محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from ...
Öljaitü was born as the son of Arghunand his third wife, KeraiteChristian Uruk Khatun on 24 March 1282 during his father's viceroyalty in Khorasan. He was given the name Khar-banda (Mule driver)at birth, raised as Buddhistand later baptised in 1291,receiving the name Nikolya (Nicholas) after Pope Nicholas IV.
- His Reign
- Foreign Policy
- Religious Affiliation
- Resting Place
- Sources of Research
According to the book, Tarikh-i Oljeitu(History of Oljeitu), Oljeitu was at first known as "Oljei-Buqa", and then "Matmodar", and finally "Kharbanda". Edgar Blochet, who has edited part of Jami' al-tawarikh, believes that the word, "Kharbanda", is another form of the Mongol word, "Khurbanda" or "Qurbanda", which means the third (the third son). According to Rashid al-Din Fadl Allah, in order to avoid the unpleasant connotation of this name (which in Persian means: servant of donkey), he appealed to Abjad numerals and extracted the meaning, "special shadow of the creator", from it. However, when Kharbanda was enthroned, he was called "Oljeitu" (combination of two Mongol words: "Oljei" which means happiness, and "Tu" which is a possession suffix. Thus, "Oljeitu" means the possessor of happiness or auspicious). He then came to be known as the King Muhammad Khudabanda (where "Khudabanda" in Persian means the servant of God).
Oljeitu was the second or the third son of Arghun Khan and Uruk Khatun. He was born somewhere between Merv and Sarakhs. Oljeitu and his brother, Ghazan Khan, were appointed by their father as rulers of Khorasan in 682/1283. Amir Nowruz served as their Atabeg. During the rule of Ghazan (694-702/1294-1302), Oljeitu was, according to the Ilkhanid tradition, appointed as the ruler of Khorasan as a crown prince. He showed his competence by suppressing the rioting rulers of Turk and rival Mongol princes. After the death of Ghazan in Shawwal, 703 (May 1304), Oljeitu killed two of his possible rivals before announcing the death of the Ilkhan. Oljeitu was enthroned on Dhu l-Hijja 15, 703 (July 19, 1304). He kept Sa'd al-Din and Rashid al-Din Fadl Allah in their ministerial positions, and appointed Qutlugh Shah as the Emir of Emirs (Amir al-Umara').
Oljeitu was not much engaged with battles and suppression of riots during his reign. Thus, he continued the reforms began by Ghazan Khan before him in the bureaucratical system which was considered as a milestone in the history of the Ilkhanid dynasty.
The first and the most important military invasion by Oljeitu occurred in 706/1306 against rioting rulers of Gilan. They had not yet complied with the Ilkhanid government for 50 years because they were protected by high mountains, dense groves, and impassable roads. After a vigorous invasion on the area, Oljeitu forced them to comply with him. Since then, Gilan paid taxes to the Ilkhanids. After the battle of Gilan, the conditions in the eastern Ilkhanid territories extremely agitated Oljeitu, since Malik Fakhr al-Din Kurt, who had a history of a quarrel with Oljeitu, had not yet expressed his loyalty to the Ilkhan. Thus, the Ilkhan sent an army there. In the meanwhile, Fakhr al-Din died and his surrogate, Muhammad Sam, surrendered. Late in the period of Oljeitu's reign, provinces in the eastern, western, and southern Ilkhanid territory were in chaos which agitated the Ilkhan. The skirmishes in the east began when the Ilkhan tried to expand his power near Shapurqan (Uspurqan) on the...
The relationship between Oljeitu and the Golden Horde or Altin Ordyn in the Steppe of Kipchaks (Cumania) was friendly at first. However, Uzbek Khan, the successor of Tuqta, reasserted the earlier claims of Altin Ordyn Khans according to which Arran and Azerbaijan were parts of their territory. In particular, late in Oljeitu's life, his relationship with the Khan of the Golden Horde fell into serious troubles. In 715/1315, Baba Ogul from the Golden Horde took refuge to Oljeitu after plundering Khwarezm, and thus, there emerged a distrust between the Persian and the Uzbek Ilkhans. However, Baba Ogul was finally killed at the command of Oljeitu and thus, his relationship with the Uzbek improved.
When he was a child, Oljeitu was baptized by his Christian mother, Uruk Khatun, and was named Nikolya after Pope Nicolas IV. However, he later converted to Buddhism. When his brother, Ghazan Khan, converted to Islam, he also converted to Islam while he was the crown prince and the ruler of Khorasan. Like his brother, he chose the Hanafisect.
Oljeitu's resting place has survived until today. It counts as one of the best-known historical monuments of Iran under the Dome of Soltaniyeh. Moreover, he constructed the city, Oljeitu Sultan in Mughan and a second capital in the foothills of the Mount Behistun whose ruins still survive under the Steppe of Cham Jamal.
The most important source about Oljeitu is the book, Tarikh-i Oljeitu (history of Oljeitu), by Abu l-Qasim Kashani, a historian contemporary with Oljeitu. This counts as the main source for later historians, especially Hafiz Abru in Jami' al-tawarikh. Tarikh-i Wassaf also counts as an independent and significant source along with Tarikh-i Oljeitu. Among the Arab historians, the accounts of Ibn Dawadari, an Egyptian historian contemporary with the Ilkhanids, is remarkable.
- Lihat Pula
Oljeitu adalah putra dari istri ketiga Arghun, Uruk Khatun yang Kristen. Oljeitu dibaptis sebagai seorang Kristen dan memperoleh nama Nikolya (Nicholas) sesuai nama Paus Nikolas IV. Selama masa mudanya dia masuk agama Buddha dan kemudian ke Islam Sunni bersama saudara lelakinya Ghazan. Dia kemudian masuk Islam Syiah setelah melakukan kontak dengan para ulama Syiah, meskipun sumber lain menunjukkan dia masuk Islam karena bujukan istrinya. Dia mengubah nama depannya menjadi nama Islami Muhammad. Beberapa kerabat dan sahabatnya memberinya julukan Khutabanda. Rashid al-Din menulis bahwa dia menggunakan nama Oljeitu mengikuti kaisar Yuan Oljeitu Temür yang bertakhta di Dadu. Tetapi beberapa sumber Muslim menyebutkan bahwa hujan turun ketika dia lahir, dan orang-orang Mongol yang bergembira memanggilnya dengan nama Mongolia Öljeitu (Өлзийт), yang berarti penuh harapan. Setelah menggantikan saudara lelakinya, Öljeitu mulai dipengaruhi oleh teolog Syiah Al-Hilli dan Maitham Al Bahrani. Pada...Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.(ISBN 0-295-98391-4) page 87Foltz, Richard, Religions of the Silk Road, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1Jackson, Peter, The Mongols and the West, Pearson Education, ISBN 0-582-36896-0
Dome of Soltaniyeh (Gonbad-e Soltanieh) lies south west of the Cohan Dej (Royal citadel). It was constructed during the reign of Soltan Mohammad Khoda Bandeh (Muhammad Khodabandeh, Öljaitü, Oljaito) in the years 704-712 AH. This structure has 8 elevated porticos and about 50 chambers, including an area which is also similar to a chamber.
Apr 06, 2016 · Öljaitü was an Ilkhanate. That means he ruled over a part of the Mongolian empire. His predecessors had been direct subordinates to the successors of Genghis Khan. At the beginning of the 14th century, however, when Öljaitü came into power, the central government had lost control over his Khanate so that Öljaitü could do as he pleased.
Jul 18, 2021 · After the death of Ghazan in 1304, his successor Öljaitü asked Rashid al-Din to extend the work, and write a history of the whole of the known world. This text was finally completed in sometime between 1306 and 1311.