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  1. en.wiktionary.org › wiki › 共和制共和制 - Wiktionary

    Chinese: ·republic ... Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary

    • 字源
    • 演變
    • 古代
    • 現代
    • 未被普遍承認的共和國
    • 延伸閱讀

    「共和制」起源自拉丁語:res publica,意思是「公共事務」(public affairs, öffentliche Sache)。西塞羅將希臘文單字πολιτεία譯為拉丁語:res publica,在文藝復興時代,這個拉丁文單字又被譯為英語:republic,其他西歐語言中也都採用類似的拼寫法。 古希臘語:πολιτεία意指政府的形式、政體或政權,柏拉圖與亞里斯多德都曾經使用這個名詞。在拉丁文中,拉丁語:res publica通常是用來泛指各種與政府或政權相關的事務。 中文裏的「共和」譯詞來自中國史上西周的周召共和時期。1845年,日本箕作省吾用變體漢文所著的《坤輿圖識》(1845年出版)中首次使用「共和」作為「republic」 譯語。這個譯語是採用中國西周時代,周召共和的典故,當時周朝掀起了國人暴動將無道的周厲王推翻,之後諸侯推舉有威望的共伯和(共國的伯君,名「和」)代行王政,而厲王則逃去了彘地。過了14年,厲王客死他鄉,共伯和於是立厲王之子靜為王,而共伯和執政的這14年便稱「共和行政」。將「共和」與「republic」對譯,喻指沒有君主的政體。另外,自清末,共和國也譯為「民國」、「民主國」,意思是民之所有所治所享之國(中華民國、大韓民國),構詞方式與「帝國」、「王國」、「公國」等相似。

    一般來說共和制就是國家各種不同的階級結合起來共同談和,協商和共同管理國家的一種管理國家的方法制度。相對於帝國及王國,共和的特點是國家元首並非世襲的皇帝,而是按照法律選舉出的。 共和有其中最關鍵的幾個特徵為: 1. 人民不是君主或最高統治者的所有物或附屬品。 2. 有某種有實際效力的法律限制政府權力,並保護人民的基本權力。 3. 人民意識形態上認知國家事務為公共事務。 在實踐上,民主的概念未必是共和制所包括的。宣稱採用共和制政府形式也可能會有某種程度專制甚至獨裁的情形。根據孟德斯鳩的分類,民主(所有的人民都享有一部分統治權),和貴族政治或寡頭政治(只有一部分人掌握統治權)都有可能屬於共和制。 共和制一般可以分為總統制、議會共和制、委員會制和半總統制。

    最早的共和政體可以追溯到西亞的阿卡德。最著名的古代共和國,則是前509年建立的羅馬共和國。在現代民主制度出現之前,還有國家如城邦採用共和政體,比如說中世紀的威尼斯共和國。共和政體和君主政體的最大差別在於國家元首的產生方式。 在古代,雖然共和名義上是所有公民共享的制度;這還不包括沒有公民權的奴隸,但實際上則多是貴族共和。在這些共和國裏,只有貴族才有參政的權力。羅馬共和國就是這樣一個例子。 亞里士多德認為國家的制度可以由兩個維度而確定,第一個維度為統治者的數量,以此可以分為「一人統治」,「少數人統治」,「多數人(或全體)統治」;第二個維度為國家機器的服務對象,可以分為「為全體服務」和「為部分人服務」。 將兩種維度映射起來就形成了六種政體的國家: 1. 君主制(一人統治為全體服務)國家; 2. 僭主制(一人統治為部分服務)國家; 3. 貴族制(少數統治為全體服務)國家; 4. 寡頭制(少數統治為部分服務)國家; 5. 民主制(多數人統治為全體服務)國家; 6. 平民制(多數人統治為部分服務)國家。 亞里士多德認為將以上六種國家中的1、3、5三種即君主制、貴族制與民主制三種制度三體合一,形成的制度是共和制,這種制度是最優秀的制度。 具體的運作方式是依靠分封制度來形成的:即國王保護整個國家的土地,作為回報貴族需要向國王上貢;貴族保護民眾的土地,作為回報,民眾需要繳稅。不同的人有不同的事情做,互相依存又互不干涉。這就是早期的共和制的由來。 共和制既可以保證公民的民主與積極性,又可以防止平民針對少數人的暴政。

    一些教科書以政府體制區分共和制和君主制,主要是以國家元首的頭銜及產生方式做區分,但未必和其共和程度相關。(參見共和主義) 例如加拿大及澳大利亞等英聯邦國家在實務上都有某種程度上的共和主義(有憲法保護人民權力,國家事務為公共事務,人民並非統治者的所有物)。而被一些教科書認為並非完全意義的共和國家。 中文「虛君共和」為梁啟超在清朝支持君主立憲制時所提出,主要原因是要和當時革命黨支持的共和制競爭公共性:「第五種,虛戴君主之共和政體。英人恆自稱為大不列顛合眾王國,或自稱為共和王國。其名稱與美無異,淺人驟聞之,或且訝為不詞。不知英之有王,不過以為裝飾品,無絲毫實權,號為神聖,等於偶像。故論政體者,恆以英編入共和之一種。其後比利時本此意編為成文憲法,歐洲各小邦多效之。故今日歐洲各國,什九皆屬虛戴君主之共和政體也,今省名曰虛君共和制。」 君主國通常為世襲制,當他們死後根據繼位規則由一個親屬接替。共和國的領導人則相反,通常依法律選舉出來,並通常有一個法律規定的期限。由民主投票來選出的稱為民主共和制。由一定數目委員所組成的委員會共同行使國家元首或政府首腦、首長的職務與政治權力稱為委員共和制。此外,由聯邦主體和聯邦制國家成員組成的共和國稱為聯邦共和國。 現代共和制度則強調公民有權力參與部分國家的法律制定,政策制定和執行,雖然實際執行上不一定如此。 在現代,共和國家的元首通常僅為一人,通常稱為總統,但也有其他稱呼,例如部分社會主義國家的元首稱為主席。某些國家的元首多於一人,例如瑞士,有一個七人委員會作為國家元首,稱為瑞士聯邦委員會,還有聖馬力諾,國家元首的位置由兩位執政官共享。 美國是聯邦共和制。共和這個詞義的使用在美國開國者時期非常通用。美國憲法的起草者為了很多原因選擇共和制。例如,對每一個政治問題從每一個公民收集選票,即直接民主容易產生多數人惡政,是不切實際的。此外,憲法規定美國總統由選舉人選出的間接選舉,選舉人依各州的議員數目而定,美國國會實行兩院制,不論人口多寡有相同代表的美國參議院比大約按照人口比例分配數目的美國眾議院有更大的權力,包括對聯邦官員及大法官行使同意權。理論上,議員行使代議的權力,比普通平民對政治事務更了解,並更少情緒化。美國的開國元勳們認為,共和可以設計為用來抵抗「多數人暴政」的保護機制。

    世界上有若干政治實體在實效上管治自身領地,是事實上的主權國家,但缺乏普遍的國際承認。這些具有國家政權性質的政治實體大多是已從母國分隔或分離的地區,因此他們通常也被稱為割據政權或殘存國家。其中的一些政權在實效上是另一國家的保護國或附庸國,享受該外部國家的軍事保護及非正式外交承認,從而防止該政治實體被其母國內另一政治實體所消滅。故列出一些未經全體聯合國會員國承認的共和國。

    Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v1, Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 2002
    Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v2, The Values of Republicanism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2002
    Willi Paul Adams, 「Republicanism in Political Rhetoric before 1776,」 Political Science Quarterly85(1970), p397-421.
    Joyce Appleby, 「Republicanism in Old and New Contexts,」 in William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 43(January, 1986), p3-34.
  2. en.wiktionary.org › wiki › 共和共和 - Wiktionary

    Etymology [] Gonghe Regency Traditionally interpreted as "joint harmony", as during the Gonghe regency, the Zhou Dynasty was considered to be ruled jointly by two dukes; but according to the Bamboo Annals, the Gonghe regency was ruled by a single person—the Count of Gong (共伯), whose name was He (和).

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    • Background
    • 1974 Post-Invasion Paralysis
    • Metapolitefsi
    • See Also

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    1973 Athens Polytechnic Uprising

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    1973 Ioannides Counter Coup

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    Strategy of democratization

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    First years after transition

    Karamanlis's New Democracy went on to comfortably win the first post-junta free elections in 1974 with 220 seat out of 300, with Centre Union gaining 60 seats, Andreas Papandreou's PASOK 12, while the United Left entered parliament with 8 seats. Karamanlis's big win in 1974 demonstrated a great change in Greek politics, without giving cause for action to the relatively inactive, but still dangerous junta elements. Three years later, with the 1974 crisis farther in the background, New Democrac...

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