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  1. Wikipedia:Basic copyediting, a task commonly following translation. Wikipedia:Pages needing translation into English, for pages on the English Wikipedia that will shortly be deleted unless translated. Wikipedia:Translating German Wikipedia. Wikipedia:Translators available.

  2. Definitions of 共和制度, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of 共和制度, analogical dictionary of 共和制度 (Japanese)

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  4. A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another. Bilingual dictionaries can be unidirectional, meaning that they list the meanings of words of one language in another, or can be bidirectional, allowing translation to and from both languages.

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › RepublicRepublic - Wikipedia

    • Etymology
    • History
    • Head of State
    • Other Meanings
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    The term originates from the Latin translation of Greek word politeia. Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publicaand it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as "republic" (or similar terms in various western European languages). The term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime and is ...

    While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and Rome, as already noted by Aristotle there was already a long history of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in Greece but also in the Middle East. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many free cities developed again, such as Venice.

    Structure

    With no monarch, most modern republics use the title president for the head of state. Originally used to refer to the presiding officer of a committee or governing body in Great Britain the usage was also applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the Thirteen Colonies (originally Virginia in 1608); in full, the "President of the Council". The first republic to adopt the title was the United States of America. Keeping its usage as the head of a committee the President of t...

    Elections

    In liberal democracies, presidents are elected, either directly by the people or indirectly by a parliament or council. Typically in presidential and semi-presidential systems the president is directly elected by the people, or is indirectly elected as done in the United States. In that country the president is officially elected by an electoral college, chosen by the States, all of which do so by direct election of the electors. The indirect election of the president through the electoral co...

    Ambiguities

    The distinction between a republic and a monarchy is not always clear. The constitutional monarchies of the former British Empire and Western Europe today have almost all real political power vested in the elected representatives, with the monarchs only holding either theoretical powers, no powers or rarely used reserve powers. Real legitimacy for political decisions comes from the elected representatives and is derived from the will of the people. While hereditary monarchies remain in place,...

    Archaic meaning

    Before the 17th Century, the term 'republic' could be used to refer to states of any form of government as long as it was not a tyrannical regime. French philosopher Jean Bodin's definition of the republic was “the rightly ordered government of a number of families, and of those things which are their common concern, by a sovereign power.” Oligarchies and monarchies could also be included as they were also organised toward 'public' shared interests. In medieval texts, 'republic' was used to r...

    Political philosophy

    The term republic originated from the writers of the Renaissance as a descriptive term for states that were not monarchies. These writers, such as Machiavelli, also wrote important prescriptive works describing how such governments should function. These ideas of how a government and society should be structured is the basis for an ideology known as classical republicanism or civic humanism. This ideology is based on the Roman Republic and the city states of Ancient Greece and focuses on idea...

    United States

    A distinct set of definitions of the term "republic" evolved in the United States, where the term is often equated with "representative democracy." This narrower understanding of the term was originally developed by James Madison and notably employed in Federalist Paper No. 10. This meaning was widely adopted early in the history of the United States, including in Noah Webster's dictionary of 1828. It was a novel meaning to the term; representative democracy was not an idea mentioned by Machi...

    Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v. 1, Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 2002
    Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v. 2, The Values of Republicanism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2002
    Willi Paul Adams, "Republicanism in Political Rhetoric before 1776", Political Science Quarterly85(1970), pp. 397–421.
    Joyce Appleby, "Republicanism in Old and New Contexts", in William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 43 (January, 1986), pp. 3–34.
    William R. Everdell, "From State to Freestate: The Meaning of the Word Republic from Jean Bodin to John Adams" Archived 2019-03-24 at the Wayback Machine (7th ISECS, Budapest, 7/31/87) in Valley Fo...
    Media related to Republicat Wikimedia Commons
    Media related to Republicsat Wikimedia Commons
    The dictionary definition of republicat Wiktionary
  6. analogical dictionary État constitué selon un mode de gouvernement (fr) [Classe] regime; polity; system of government; political system; form of government; régime (en) [Classe]

  7. English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the Frisian North Sea coast, whose languages gradually evolved into the Anglic languages in the British Isles, and into the Frisian languages and Low German/Low Saxon on the continent.

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