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  1. Black Death - Wikipedia › wiki › Black_Death

    The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing the death of 75–200 million people in Eurasia and North Africa, peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

    • 1346–1353
    • Eurasia, North Africa
  2. William of Ockham - Wikipedia › wiki › William_of_Occam
    • Life
    • Faith and Reason
    • Philosophical Thought
    • Literary Ockhamism/Nominalism
    • Works
    • in Fiction
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    William of Ockham was born in Ockham, Surrey in 1285. He received his elementary education in the London House of the Greyfriars. It is believed that he then studied theology at the University of Oxford from 1309 to 1321, but while he completed all the requirements for a master's degree in theology, he was never made a regent master. Because of this, he acquired the honorific title Venerabilis Inceptor, or "Venerable Beginner" (an inceptorwas a student formally admitted to the ranks of teachers by the university authorities). During the Middle Ages, theologian Peter Lombard's Sentences (1150) had become a standard work of theology, and many ambitious theological scholars wrote commentaries on it. William of Ockham was among these scholarly commentators. However, William's commentary was not well received by his colleagues, or by the Church authorities. In 1324, his commentary was condemned as unorthodox by a synod of bishops,[citation needed] and he was ordered to Avignon, France, t...

    William of Ockham espoused fideism, stating that "only faith gives us access to theological truths. The ways of God are not open to reason, for God has freely chosen to create a world and establish a way of salvation within it apart from any necessary laws that human logic or rationality can uncover." He believed that science was a matter of discovery and saw God as the only ontological necessity.His importance is as a theologian with a strongly developed interest in logical method, and whose approach was critical rather than system building.

    In scholasticism, William of Ockham advocated reform in both method and content, the aim of which was simplification. William incorporated much of the work of some previous theologians, especially Duns Scotus. From Duns Scotus, William of Ockham derived his view of divine omnipotence, his view of grace and justification, much of his epistemology[citation needed] and ethical convictions. However, he also reacted to and against Scotus in the areas of predestination, penance, his understanding of universals, his formal distinction ex parte rei (that is, "as applied to created things"), and his view of parsimony which became known as Occam's Razor.

    William of Ockham and his works have been discussed as a possible influence on several late medieval literary figures and works, especially Geoffrey Chaucer, but also Jean Molinet, the Gawain poet, François Rabelais, John Skelton, Julian of Norwich, the York and Townely Plays, and Renaissance romances. Only in very few of these cases is it possible to demonstrate direct links to William of Ockham or his texts. Correspondences between Ockhamist and Nominalist philosophy/theology and literary texts from medieval to postmodern times have been discussed within the scholarly paradigm of literary nominalism. Erasmus, in his Praise of Folly, criticized him together with Duns Scotus as fuelling unnecessary controversies inside the Church.

    The standard edition of the philosophical and theological works is: William of Ockham: Opera philosophica et theologica, Gedeon Gál, et al., eds. 17 vols. St. Bonaventure, N. Y.: The Franciscan Institute, 1967–88. The seventh volume of the Opera Philosophicacontains the doubtful and spurious works. The political works, all but the Dialogus, have been edited in H. S. Offler, et al., eds. Guilelmi de Ockham Opera Politica, 4 vols., 1940–97, Manchester: Manchester University Press [vols. 1–3]; Oxford: Oxford University Press [vol. 4]. Abbreviations: OT = Opera Theologica voll. 1–10; OP = Opera Philosophica voll. 1–7.

    William of Occam served as an inspiration for the creation of William of Baskerville, the main character of Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose, and is the main character of La abadía del crimen (The Abbey of Crime), a video game based upon said novel.

    Adams, Marilyn (1987). William Ockham. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-01940-1.
    Beckmann, Jan (1992). Ockham-Bibliographie, 1900–1990. Hamburg: F. Meiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7873-1103-3.
    Freppert, Lucan (1988). The Basis of Morality According to William Ockham. Franciscan Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8199-0918-3.
    Keele, Rondo (2010). Ockham Explained: From Razor to Rebellion. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court. ISBN 978-08126-965-09. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  3. The Wild Ones (film) - Wikipedia › wiki › The_Wild_Ones_(film)

    The Wild Ones. (film) The Wild Ones ( Catalan: Els Nens Salvatges; Spanish: Los Niños Salvajes) is a 2012 Spanish drama film directed by Patrícia Ferreira . The film premiered at the 2012 Málaga Film Festival where it won Best Picture. The film was nominated for three Goya Awards (Best New Actor, Best New Actress and Best Original Song).

    • Patrícia Ferreira
    • April 2012 (Malága)
  4. Sadomasochism - Wikipedia › wiki › en:Sadomasochism
    • Definition and Etymology
    • Psychology
    • Medical and Forensic Classification
    • BDSM
    • Other

    The term sadomasochism is used in a variety of different ways. It can refer to cruel individuals or those who brought misfortunes onto themselves and psychiatristsdefine it as pathological. However, recent research suggests that sadomasochism is mostly simply a sexual interest, and not a pathological symptom of past abuse, or a sexual problem, and that people with sadomasochistic sexual interest are in general neither damaged nor dangerous. The word sadomasochism is a portmanteau of the words sadism (/ˈseɪdɪzəm/) and masochism. The two words incorporated into this compound, "sadism" and "masochism", were originally derived from the names of two authors. The term "sadism" has its origin in the name of the Marquis de Sade (1740–1814), who not only practiced sexual sadism, but also wrote novels about these practices, of which the best known is Justine. "Masochism" is named after Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (1836–1895), who wrote novels expressing his masochistic fantasies. These terms we...

    Historical perspective

    Sadomasochism, or the use of pain as a sexual stimulant has been practiced since ancient times with some scholars suggesting that it is an integral part of human culture. There are even those who propose that it is already present among nonhuman primate and primitive human communities before emerging in ancient Egyptian, Indian, Oriental, and Arab cultures. One of the oldest surviving narratives that cited its practice was an Egyptian love song, sung by a man expressing a desire to be subjuga...

    Modern psychology

    There are a number of reasons commonly given for why a sadomasochist finds the practice of S&M enjoyable, and the answer is largely dependent on the individual. For some, taking on a role of compliance or helplessness offers a form of therapeutic escape; from the stresses of life, from responsibility, or from guilt. For others, being under the power of a strong, controlling presence may evoke the feelings of safety and protection associated with childhood. They likewise may derive satisfactio...


    Medical opinion of sadomasochistic activities has changed over time. The classification of sadism and masochism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has always been separate; sadism was included in the DSM-I in 1952, while masochism was added in the DSM-II in 1968.Contemporary psychology continues to identify sadism and masochism separately, and categorizes them as either practised as a life style, or as a medical condition. The current version of the American Ps...


    On 18 June 2018, the WHO (World Health Organization) published ICD-11, and Sadomasochism, together with Fetishism and Transvestic Fetishism, are now removed as psychiatric diagnoses. Moreover, discrimination of fetish- and BDSM individuals is considered inconsistent with human rights principles endorsed by the United Nations and The World Health Organization. The classifications of sexual disorders reflect contemporary sexual norms and have moved from a model of pathologization or criminaliza...

    Forensic classification

    According to Anil Aggrawal, in forensic science, levels of sexual sadism and masochism are classified as follows: Sexual masochists: 1. Class I: Bothered by, but not seeking out, fantasies. May be preponderantly sadists with minimal masochistic tendencies or non-sadomasochistic with minimal masochistic tendencies 2. Class II: Equal mix of sadistic and masochistic tendencies. Like to receive pain but also like to be dominant partner (in this case, sadists). Sexual orgasm is achieved without pa...

    The term BDSM is commonly used to describe consensual activities that contain sadistic and masochistic elements. Masochists tend to be very specific about the types of pain they enjoy, preferring some and disliking others.[citation needed] Many behaviors such as spanking, tickling, and love-bites contain elements of sadomasochism. Even if both parties legally consent to such acts this may not be accepted as a defense against criminal charges. Very few jurisdictions will permit consent as a legitimate defense if serious bodily injuries are caused.[citation needed] It has been argued that in many countries, the law disregards the sexual nature of sadomasochism - or the fact that participants enter these relationships voluntarily because they enjoy the experience. Instead, the criminal justice system focuses on what it views as dangerous or violent behavior. What this essentially means is that instead of attempting to understand and accommodate for voluntary sadomasochism, the law typi...

    A table in Larry Townsend's The Leatherman's Handbook II (the 1983 second edition; the 1972 first edition did not include this list) which is generally considered authoritative states that a black handkerchief is a symbol for sadomasochism in the handkerchief code, which is employed usually among gay male casual-sex seekers or BDSM practitioners in the United States, Canada, Australia and Europe. Wearing the handkerchief on the left indicates the top, dominant, or active partner; right the bottom, submissive, or passive partner. However, negotiation with a prospective partner remains important because, as Townsend noted, people may wear hankies of any color "only because the idea of the hankie turns them on" or "may not even know what it means".

  5. Superfluid film - Wikipedia › wiki › Superfluid_films

    One can measure the superfluid response of the film by measuring the moment of inertia.An indispensable tool for this is the Torsional Oscillator, and early design was first used by Andronikashvili to detect superfluid in bulk fluid 4 He and later modified by John Reppy and co-workers at Cornell in the 1970s.

  6. JFK (film) - Wikipedia › wiki › JFK_(film)

    JFK is a 1991 American epic political thriller film directed by Oliver Stone.It examines the events leading to the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy and alleged cover-up through the eyes of former New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison (Kevin Costner).

  7. September 12 - Wikipedia › wiki › September_12
    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths
    • Holidays and Observances
    • External Links
    490 BC – Battle of Marathon: The conventionally accepted date for the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians and their Plataean allies defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece.
    372 – Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father Jin Jianwendi as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty.
    1185 – Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos brutally put to death in Constantinople.
    1213 – Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.
    1415 – John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk(d. 1461)
    1494 – Francis I of France(d. 1547)
    1590 – María de Zayas, Spanish writer (d. 1661)
    1605 – William Dugdale, English genealogist and historian (d. 1686)
    640 – Sak K'uk', Mayan queen
    973 – Nefingus, bishop of Angers
    1185 – Andronikos I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor (b. 1118)
    1213 – Peter II of Aragon(b. 1174)
    Christian feast day:
    Commemoration of the mass hanging of the Saint Patrick's Battalion(Mexico)
    Defenders Day (Maryland, United States)
  8. Devils Tower - Wikipedia › wiki › Devils_Tower

    Devils Tower was the first United States national monument, established on September 24, 1906, by President Theodore Roosevelt. The monument's boundary encloses an area of 1,347 acres (545 ha). In recent years, about 1% of the monument's 400,000 annual visitors climbed Devils Tower, mostly using traditional climbing techniques.

  9. Batman (comic book) - Wikipedia › wiki › Batman_(comic_book)

    Batman is an ongoing American comic book series featuring the DC Comics superhero Batman as its main protagonist. The character first appeared in Detective Comics #27 ( cover dated May 1939). Batman proved to be so popular that a self-titled ongoing comic book series began publication with a cover date of spring 1940.

  10. Lady Joan FitzAlan, Countess of Hereford (1347 - 1419 ... › people › Joan-FitzAlan-Countess-of

    May 17, 2017 · "Joan FitzAlan, Countess of Hereford, Countess of Essex and Countess of Northampton (1347 – 7 April 1419), was the wife of the 7th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex and 2nd Earl of Northampton. She was the mother of Mary de Bohun, the first wife of Henry of Bolingbroke who later reigned as King Henry IV, and Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of ...

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