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  1. Perang saudara Romawi Timur 1341–1347 - Wikipedia bahasa ... › wiki › Perang_saudara_Romawi

    Perang saudara Romawi Timur 1341–1347, kadang-kadang disebut Perang Saudara Palaiologos Kedua, adalah konflik yang meletus setelah kematian Andronikos III Palaiologos perihal siapa yang akan menjadi wali penerusnya yang masih berumur sembilan tahun, Yohanes V Palaiologos.

  2. History of Indonesia - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Indonesia
    • Prehistory
    • Hindu-Buddhist Civilisations
    • The Age of Islamic States
    • Colonial Era
    • The Emergence of Indonesia
    • Sukarno's Presidency
    • The New Order
    • Reform Era
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    In 2007, an analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools. This is the oldest evidence for the presence of early humans in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus in Indonesia, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois at Trinil in 1891, and are at least 700,000 years old. Other H. erectus fossils of a similar age were found at Sangiran in the 1930s by the anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, who in the same time period also uncovered fossils at Ngandong alongside more advanced tools, re-dated in 2011 to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. In 1977 another H. erectus skull was discovered at Sambungmacan. The earliest evidence of artistic activity ever found, in the form of diagonal etchings made with the use of a shark's tooth, was detected in 2014 on a 500,000-year-old fossil of a clam found in Java in the 1890s, ass...

    Early kingdoms

    Indonesia like much of Southeast Asia was influenced by Indian culture. From the 2nd century, through the Indian dynasties like the Pallava, Gupta, Pala and Cholain the succeeding centuries up to the 12th century, Indian culture spread across all of Southeast Asia. References to the Dvipantara or Yawadvipa, a Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra appear in Sanskrit writings from 200 BCE. In India's earliest epic, the Ramayana, Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the...


    Medang Empire, sometimes referred to as Mataram, was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta between the 8th and 10th centuries. The kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty, and later by the Sanjaya dynasty. The centre of the kingdom was moved from central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. An eruption of the volcano Mount Merapi in 929, and political pressure from Sailendrans based in the Srivijaya Empiremay have caused the move. The first king of Mataram, S...


    Srivijaya was an ethnic Malay kingdom on Sumatra which influenced much of the Maritime Southeast Asia. From the 7th century, the powerful Srivijayanaval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Srivijaya was centred in the coastal trading centre of present-day Palembang. Srivijaya was not a "state" in the modern sense with defined boundaries and a centralised government to which the citizens own allegiance. Rather Srivijay...

    The spread of Islam

    The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate, according to those early accounts the Indonesian archipelago were famous among early Muslim sailors mainly due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmeg, cloves, galangaland many other spices. Although Muslim traders first travelled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the spread of Islam among the inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago dates to the 13th century in no...

    Sultanate of Mataram

    The Sultanate of Mataram was the third Sultanate in Java, after the Sultanate of Demak Bintoroand the Sultanate of Pajang. According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the 1570s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta(Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension. Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father on the throne around 1584. Under...

    The Sultanate of Banten

    In 1524–25, Sunan Gunung Jati from Cirebon, together with the armies of Demak Sultanate, seized the port of Banten from the Sunda kingdom, and established The Sultanate of Banten. This was accompanied by Muslim preachers and the adoption of Islam amongst the local population. At its peak in the first half of the 17th century, the Sultanate lasted from 1526 to 1813 AD. The Sultanate left many archaeological remains and historical records.

    Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans—the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English—sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) of Indonesia. This meant finding a way to Asia to cut out Muslim merchants who, with their Venetian outlet in the Mediterranean, monopolised spice imports to Europe. Astronomically priced at the time, spices were highly coveted not only to preserve and make poorly preserved meat palatable, but also as medicines and magic potions. The arrival of Europeans in South East Asia is often regarded as the watershed moment in its history. Other scholars consider this view untenable, arguing that European influence during the times of the early arrivals of the 16th and 17th centuries was limited in both area and depth. This is in part due to Europe not being the most advanced or dynamic area of the world in the early 15th century. Rather, the major expansionist force of this time was Islam; in 1453,...

    Indonesian National Awakening

    In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On 10 September 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed: Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarekat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post–World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with...

    Japanese occupation

    The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II interrupted Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. In May 1940, early in World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands, but the Dutch government-in-exile initially continued to control the Dutch East Indies from its base in London. The Dutch East Indies declared a state of siege and in July 1940 redirected exports intended for Japan to the US and Britain. Negotiations with...

    Indonesian National Revolution

    Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda ('youth') groups, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific. The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) declared Sukarno President and Hatta Vice-President. Word of the proclamation spread by shortwave and fliers while the Indonesian war-time military (PETA), youths, and others rallied in support of the new republic, often mov...

    Democratic experiment

    With the unifying struggle to secure Indonesia's independence over, divisions in Indonesian society began to appear. These included regional differences in customs, religion, the impact of Christianity and Marxism, and fears of Javanese political domination. Following colonial rule, Japanese occupation, and war against the Dutch, the new country suffered from severe poverty, a ruinous economy, low educational and skills levels, and authoritarian traditions. Challenges to the authority of the...

    Guided Democracy

    By 1956, Sukarno was openly criticising parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony as being the natural state of human relationships. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders. He proposed a threefold blend of nasionalisme ('nationalism'), agama ('religion'), and komunisme ('communism') into a co-operative 'Nas-A-Kom' g...

    Sukarno's revolution and nationalism

    Charismatic Sukarno spoke as a romantic revolutionary, and under his increasingly authoritarian rule, Indonesia moved on a course of stormy nationalism. Sukarno was popularly referred to as bang ("older brother"), and he painted himself as a man of the people carrying the aspirations of Indonesia and one who dared take on the West.He instigated a number of large, ideologically driven infrastructure projects and monuments celebrating Indonesia's identity, which were criticised as substitutes f...

    Transition to the New Order

    Described as the great dalang ("puppet master"), Sukarno's position depended on balancing the opposing and increasingly hostile forces of the army and the PKI. Sukarno's anti-imperialist ideology saw Indonesia increasingly dependent on Soviet and then communist China. By 1965, the PKI was the largest communist party in the world outside the Soviet Union or China. Penetrating all levels of government, the party increasingly gained influence at the expense of the army. On 30 September 1965, six...

    Entrenchment of the New Order

    In the aftermath of Suharto's rise, hundreds of thousands of people were killed or imprisoned by the military and religious groups in a backlash against alleged communist supporters, with direct support from the United States. Suharto's administration is commonly called the New Order era.Suharto invited major foreign investment, which produced substantial, if uneven, economic growth. However, Suharto enriched himself and his family through business dealings and widespread corruption.

    Annexation of West Irian

    At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western half of New Guinea (also known as West Irian), and permitted steps towards self-government and a declaration of independence on 1 December 1961. After negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of the territory into Indonesia failed, an Indonesian paratroop invasion 18 December preceded armed clashes between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961 and 1962. In 1962 the United States pressured the Netherlands into secre...

    Pro-democracy movement

    In 1996 Suharto undertook efforts to pre-empt a challenge to the New Order government. The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), a legal party that had traditionally propped up the regime, had changed direction and began to assert its independence. Suharto fostered a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of the People's Representative Council Suryadi against a faction loyal to Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Sukarnoand the PDI's chairperson....

    Economic crisis and Suharto's resignation

    In 1997 and 1998, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, as well as Suharto's presidency. At the same time, the country suffered a severe drought and some of the largest forest fires in history burned in Kalimantan and Sumatra. The rupiah, the Indonesian currency, took a sharp dive in value. Suharto came under scrutiny from international lending institutions, chiefly the World Bank, Internat...

    May 1998 riots of Indonesia

    The May 1998 riots of Indonesia also known as the 1998 tragedy or simply the 1998 event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia.

    Burhanudin, Jajat, and Kees van Dijk, eds. Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations(Amsterdam University Press, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2013) 279 pages; schola...
    Dijk, Kees van. 2001. A country in despair. Indonesia between 1997 and 2000. KITLV Press, Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-160-9
    Schwarz, Adam. 1994. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability. 2nd Edition. St Leonards, NSW : Allen & Unwin.
    van Zanden J. L. An Economic History of Indonesia: 1800–2010(Routledge, 2012)
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  4. 1347 - Wikipedia › wiki › AD_1347

    1347 (MCCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1347th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 347th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 14th century, and the 8th year of the 1340s decade.

  5. 1347 - Wikipedia › wiki › 1347

    1347 He maramara noa iho tēnei tuhipānui mō te maramataka. Tirohia ngā tikanga whakapai mō tēnei paetukutuku reo Māori. Māu pea e whakaroa?

  6. 1347 - Wikipedia, Ensaeklopedia ya mahala › wiki › 1347

    1347 - Wikipedia, Ensaeklopedia ya mahala 1347 1347 (MCCCXLVII) ebile ngwaga wa go thoma ka Sontaga, ngwaga wa boseswai ngwagengsome wa 1340s, ngwaga wa bomasomenne šupa ngwagengkgolo wa Ngwagakgolo 14, le ngwaga wa bomakgolo tharo masomenne šupa ngwagengkete wa Ngwagakete 2.

  7. Category:1347 - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:1347

    Category:1347. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1347. Articles and events specifically related to the year AD 1347 . 1342.

  8. 1347 - Wikipedia, ti nawaya nga ensiklopedia › wiki › 1347

    Midia a mainaig iti 1347 iti Wikimedia Commons Daytoy a panid ket naudi a naurnos idi 30 Mayo 2018, 22:16. Ti teksto ket magun-od babaen ti Lisensia ti Creative ...

  9. Dharmasraya - Wikipedia › wiki › Dharmasraya

    Indonesia portal. v. t. e. Dharmasraya is the capital and also the name of the 11th century Malay Hindu kingdom based on the Batanghari river system in modern-day West Sumatra and Jambi, on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The kingdom itself could be identified by the name of its capital Dharmasraya or by the name Bhumi Malayu or Suvarnnabhumi ...

  10. 1347 — Википедија › wiki › 1347

    1347 — Википедија. [ одбаци] Учествујте у Кампањи уређивања референци „1lib1ref” од 15. јануара до 5. фебруара. Учествујте у Акцији писања чланака о Кини од 1. фебруара до 1. марта.

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