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- Notable Features
- Related Mounds
- Cahokia Museum and Interpretive Center
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Although some evidence exists of occupation during the Late Archaic period (around 1200 BCE) in and around the site, Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around 600 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building at this location began with the emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE. The inhabitants left no written records beyond symbols on pottery, shell, copper, wood, and stone, but the elaborately planned community, woodhenge, mounds, and burials reveal a c...
Rise and peak
Cahokia became the most important center for the people known today as Mississippians. Their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest, Eastern, and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois Rivers. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert, and whelkshells. Mi...
The population of Cahokia began to decline during the 13th century, and the site was eventually abandoned by around 1350. Scholars have proposed environmental factors, such as environmental degradation through overhunting, deforestation and pollution, and climatic changes, such as increased flooding and droughts, as explanations for abandonment of the site. Political and economic problems may also have been responsible for the site's decline.It is likely that social and environmental factors...
The original site contained 120 earthen mounds over an area of 6 square miles (16 km2), of which 80 remain today. To achieve that, thousands of workers over decades moved more than an estimated 55 million cubic feet [1,600,000 m3] of earth in woven baskets to create this network of mounds and community plazas. Monks Mound, for example, covers 14 acres (5.7 ha), rises 100 ft (30 m), and was topped by a massive 5,000 sq ft (460 m2) building another 50 ft (15 m) high.
Until the 19th century, a series of similar mounds was documented as existing in what is now the city of St. Louis, some 20 mi (32 km) to the southwest of Cahokia. Most of these mounds were leveled during the development of St. Louis, and much of their material was reused in construction projects. The lone survivor of these mounds is Sugarloaf Mound. Located on the west bank of the Mississippi, it marked the initial border between St. Louis and the once autonomous city of Carondelet. One of the largest Mississippian sites is Kincaid Mounds State Historic Site, located in Massac and Polk counties in southern Illinois. It is 140 mi (230 km) southeast of Cahokia, located in the floodplain of the Ohio River. With a total of 19 mounds at the complex, it is considered the fifth-largest Mississippian site in terms of the number of monuments. It is believed to have been a chiefdom, as an elite burial mound was among those found. The site is designated as a National Historic Landmark.
The Cahokia Museum and Interpretive Center, which receives up to a million visitors a year, was designed by AAIC Inc. The building, which opened in 1989, received the Thomas H. Madigan Award, the St. Louis Construction News & Reviews Readers Choice Award, the Merit Award from the Metal Construction Association, and the Outstanding Achievement Award from the Brick Manufacturer Association.
Cahokia Mounds was first protected by the state of Illinois in 1923 when its legislature authorized purchase of a state park. Later designation as a state historic site offered additional protection, but the site came under significant threat from the federal highway building program in the 1950s. The highway program reduced the site's integrity; however, it increased funding for emergency archeological investigations. These investigations became intensive, and today continue. They have resulted in the present understanding of the national and international significance of the site. The site was designated a National Historic Landmark on July 19, 1964, and listed on the National Register of Historic Placeson October 15, 1966. In 1982, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) designated the site a World Heritage Site. This is the only such self-contained site in Illinois and among 24 World Heritage Sitesin the United States in 2009. State Senator...
^ a: See Engraved beaker from Cahokia site, donated by Moorehead, ISM collection.for image of the object in question.Bolfing, Christopher (May 1, 2010). The Paradigm of the Periphery in Native North America (Thesis). Texas State University-San Marcos, University College, University Honors Program. pp. 67–68. Retr...Chappell, Sally A. Kitt (2002). Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-10136-1.Emerson, Thomas E. (1997). Cahokia and the Archaeology of Power. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama. ISBN 0-8173-0888-1. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved September 21,...Emerson, Thomas E.; Lewis, R. Barry (1991). Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois. ISBN 0-252-06878-5. Archived from th...Emerson, Iseminger; Nance, L. Michael; Winslow, Madeline; Gass, Marilyn (2001). Cahokia Mounds State Historical Site Nature / Culture Hike Guidebook, 4th revised edition. Collinsville, Illinois: Ca...Fowler, Melvin L.; Rose, Jerome; Leest, Barbara Vander; Ahler, Steven R. (1999). The Mound 72 Area: Dedicated and Sacred Space in Early Cahokia. Illinois State Museum Society. ISBN 978-0-89792-157-2.Cahokia Mounds Homepage and Map of the Site
The 13th century includes the years 1201 to 1300. It was generally agreed to do so as it would have been quite a bit messier to do it any other way. The Mongol Empire reaches its greatest size, stretching from China to Eastern Europe. This is depite the fact that the population of many of its regions is now zero.
- Spread of Rocket Technology
- Adoption in Renaissance-Era Europe
- Early Modern History
- 19Th-Century Gunpowder-Rocket Artillery
- Early 20Th-Century Rocket Pioneers
- Modern Rocketry
- See Also
The dating of the invention of the first rocket, otherwise known as the gunpowder propelled fire arrow, is disputed. The History of Song attributes the invention to two different people at different times, Feng Zhisheng in 969 and Tang Fu in 1000. However Joseph Needham argues that rockets could not have existed before the 12th century, since the gunpowder formulas listed in the Wujing Zongyaoare not suitable as rocket propellant. Rockets may have been used as early as 1232, when reports appeared describing fire arrows and 'iron pots' that could be heard for 5 leagues (25 km, or 15 miles) when they exploded upon impact, causing devastation for a radius of 600 meters (2,000 feet), apparently due to shrapnel. A "flying fire-lance" that had re-usable barrels was also mentioned to have been used by the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Rockets are recorded to have been used by the Song navy in a military exercise dated to 1245. Internal-combustion rocket propulsion is mentioned in a reference to...
The Chinese fire arrow was adopted by the Mongols in northern China, who employed Chinese rocketry experts as mercenaries in the Mongol army. Rockets are thought to have spread via the Mongol invasionsto other areas of Eurasia in the mid 13th century. Rocket-like weapons are reported to have been used at the Battle of Mohiin the year 1241.
Between 1270 and 1280, Hasan al-Rammah wrote his al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices), which included 107 gunpowder recipes, 22 of which are for rockets. According to Ahmad Y Hassan, al-Rammah's recipes were more explosive than rockets used in China at the time. The terminology used by al-Rammah indicates a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons he wrote about, such as rockets and fire lances. Ibn al-Baitar, an Arab from Spain...
Mongol mercenaries are recorded to have used hand held rockets in India in 1300. By the mid-14th century Indianswere also using rockets in warfare.
According to the 18th-century historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori, rockets were used in the war between the Republics of Genoa and Venice at Chioggia in 1380. It is uncertain whether Muratori was correct in his interpretation, as the reference might also have been to bombard, butMuratori is the source for the widespread claim that the earliest recorded European use of rocket artillery dates to 1380.Konrad Kyeser described rockets in his famous military treatise Bellifortis around 1405.Kyeser describes three types of rockets, swimming, free flying and captive. Joanes de Fontana in Bellicorum instrumentorum liber(c. 1420) described flying rockets in the shape of doves, running rockets in the shape of hares, and a large car driven by three rockets, as well as a large rocket torpedo with the head of a sea monster. In the mid-16th century, Conrad Haas wrote a book that described rocket technology that combined fireworks and weapons technologies. This manuscript was discovered in 1961, in...
Lagari Hasan Çelebi was a legendary Ottoman aviator who, according to an account written by Evliya Çelebi, made a successful manned rocket flight. Evliya Çelebi purported that in 1633 Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched in a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (63.5 kg, or 140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.
William Congreve (1772-1828), son of the Comptroller of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, London, became a major figure in the field. From 1801 Congreve researched the original design of Mysore rockets and started a vigorous development program at the Arsenal's laboratory. Congreve prepared a new propellant mixture, and developed a rocket motor with a strong iron tube with conical nose. This early Congreve rocket weighed about 32 pounds (14.5 kilograms). The Royal Arsenal's first demonstration of solid-fuel rockets took place in 1805. The rockets were effectively used during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Congreve published three books on rocketry. Subsequently, the use of military rockets spread throughout the western world. At the Battle of Baltimore in 1814, the rockets fired on Fort McHenry by the rocket vessel HMS Erebus were the source of the rockets' red glare described by Francis Scott Key in "The Star-Spangled Banner". Rockets were also used in the Battle of Waterlooin...
At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a burst of scientific investigation into interplanetary travel, fueled by the creativity of fiction writers such as Jules Verne and H. G. Wells as well as philosophical movements like Russian cosmism. Scientists seized on the rocket as a technology that was able to achieve this in real life, a possibility first recognized in 1861 by William Leitch. In 1903, high school mathematics teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), inspired by Verne and Cosmism, published Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), the first serious scientific work on space travel. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation—the principle that governs rocket propulsion—is named in his honor (although it had been discovered previously, Tsiolkovsky is honored as being the first to apply it to the question of whether rockets could achieve speeds necessary for space travel). He also advocated the use o...
Pre-World War II
Modern rockets originated when Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to the combustion chamber of a liquid-fueled rocket engine. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%. On 16 March 1926 Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Massachusetts. During the 1920s, a number of rocket research organization...
World War II
At the start of the war, the British had equipped their warships with unrotated projectile unguided anti-aircraft rockets, and by 1940, the Germans had developed a surface-to-surface multiple rocket launcher, the Nebelwerfer, and the Soviets already had introduced the RS-132 air-to-ground rocket. All of these rockets were developed for a variety of roles, notably the Katyusha rocket. In 1943, production of the V-2 rocket began in Germany. It had an operational range of 300 km (190 mi) and car...
Post World War II
1. Dornberger and Von Braunafter being captured by the Allies. 2. R-7 8K72 "Vostok" permanently displayed at the Moscow Trade Fair at Ostankino; the rocket is held in place by its railway carrier, which is mounted on four diagonal beams that constitute the display pedestal. Here the railway carrier has tilted the rocket upright as it would do so into its launch pad structure—which is missing for this display. 3. Prototype of the General Electric (USA) Mk-2 Reentry Vehicle (RV), based on blunt...Adle, Chahryar (2003), History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in Contrast: from the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth CenturyÁgoston, Gábor (2008), Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-60391-1Agrawal, Jai Prakash (2010), High Energy Materials: Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics, Wiley-VCHAndrade, Tonio (2016), The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13597-7.
History. History is the study of past events. People know what happened in the past by looking at things from the past including sources (like books, newspapers, and letters) and artifacts (like pottery, tools, and human or animal remains.) Libraries, archives, and museums collect and keep these things for people to study history.
During the early 13th century Khwarezmia was invaded by the early Mongol Empire and its ruler Genghis Khan destroyed the once vibrant cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. However, in 1370 Samarkand saw a revival as the capital of the Timurid Empire.
For example, the Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as papal legate to England in the early 13th century and played a major role in both the English government and church at the time. By the Late Middle Ages it had become more common to appoint native clerics to the position of legate within their own country, such as Cardinal Wolsey acting as ...