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The basis for sub-20nm fabrication is the FinFET (Fin field-effect transistor), an evolution of the MOSFET transistor. FinFET technology was pioneered by Digh Hisamoto and his team of researchers at HitachiCentral Research Laboratory in 1989. 14 nm resolution is difficult to achieve in a polymeric resist, even with electron beam lithography. In addition, the chemical effects of ionizing radiation also limit reliable resolution to about 30 nm, which is also achievable using current state-of-the-art immersion lithography. Hardmask materials and multiple patterningare required. A more significant limitation comes from plasma damage to low-k materials. The extent of damage is typically 20 nm thick, but can also go up to about 100 nm. The damage sensitivity is expected to get worse as the low-k materials become more porous. For comparison, the atomic radius of an unconstrained silicon is 0.11 nm. Thus about 90 Si atoms would span the channel length, leading to substantial leakage. Tela I...
In the late 1990s, Hisamoto's Japanese team from Hitachi Central Research Laboratory began collaborating with an international team of researchers on further developing FinFET technology, including TSMC's Chenming Hu and various UC Berkeley researchers. In 1998, the team successfully fabricated devices down to a 17nm process. They later developed a 15nm FinFET process in 2001. In 2002, an international team of researchers at UC Berkeley, including Shibly Ahmed (Bangladeshi), Scott Bell, Cyrus Tabery (Iranian), Jeffrey Bokor, David Kyser, Chenming Hu (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company), and Tsu-Jae King Liu, demonstrated FinFET devices down to 10 nmgate length. In 2005, Toshiba demonstrated a 15 nm FinFET process, with a 15 nm gate length and 10 nm fin width, using a sidewall spacer process. It has been suggested that for the 16 nm node, a logic transistor would have a gate length of about 5 nm.In December 2007, Toshiba demonstrated a prototype memory unit that used 15-nanom...
In 2013, SK Hynix began mass-production of 16nm NAND flash, TSMC began 16nm FinFET production, and Samsung began 10nmclass NAND flash production. On 5 September 2014, Intel launched the first three Broadwell-based processors that belonged to the low-TDPCore M family: Core M-5Y10, Core M-5Y10a, and Core M-5Y70. In February 2015, Samsung announced that their flagship smartphones, the Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge, would feature 14 nm Exynos systems on chip(SoCs). On March 9, 2015, Apple Inc. released the "Early 2015" MacBook and MacBook Pro, which utilized 14 nm Intel processors. Of note is the i7-5557U, which has Intel Iris Graphics6100 and two cores running at 3.1 GHz, using only 28 watts. On September 25, 2015, Apple Inc. released the IPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus, which are equipped with "desktop-class" A9 chips that are fabricated in both 14 nm by Samsung and 16 nm by TSMC(Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company). In May 2016, Nvidia released its GeForce 10 series GPUs based on the Pas...
- Route Description
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NM 14 begins at the intersection with NM 333 in Tijeras, which is also the center of the Tijeras interchange along Interstate 40 (I-40). NM 14 heads north through Bernalillo County, passing through the community of Cedar Crest, to San Antonito, where it intersects NM 536. The highway continues northeast and briefly cuts through Sandoval County by entering from the south and leaving from the east. Now in Santa Fe County, NM 14 turns to the north. It intersects NM 344 west of Oro Quay Peak, both of which are located south of the ghost town of Golden.
State Road 10 (NM 10) had been established before 1927 between Albuquerque and Santa Fe. By 1927, part of NM 10 was replaced by US 470 from Tijeras to Albuquerque, but the northern terminus remained at US 85 in Santa Fe. By 1930, the end of NM 10 was at US 66. In 1935, NM 10 was extended south to NM 15 near Tajique. NM 15 was later absorbed into a further southern extension of NM 10 to US 54 in Carrizozo. By 1949, this highway was mostly paved. Originally, the NM 14 designation was serviced by a road between the Arizona–New Mexico state line and US 80 in Road Forks. NM 14 along with SR 86 in Arizona provided a shortcut to US 80 between Benson, Arizona and Road Forks, due to US 80 taking a loop to Douglas, Arizona. The original NM 14 was replaced by Interstate 10 in 1960. In 1970, the NM 14 designation was recycled and used to re-number NM 10, to avoid numbering confusion with I-10. During the 1988 re-numbering, NM 14 was extended along former US 85 through Santa Fe to US 84 and US 2...
Route map: 1. Geographic data related to New Mexico State Road 14 at OpenStreetMap 2. New Mexico State Highways
People also ask
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With a total area of 121,590 square miles (314,900 km 2 ), New Mexico is the fifth-largest state. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and (due to a 19th-century surveying error) 2.2 miles (3.5 kilometres) west of 103°W longitude with Texas.
Oct 08, 2016 · Wikipedia says that the naming of this technology node as "14 nm" came from the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). So does it mean "14 nm" is an abstract term, which dose not refer to any transistor's component? Then why 14 nm and not 16 nm?
- Rifle Design
- Further Reading
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The M14 was developed from a long line of experimental weapons based upon the M1 Garand rifle. Although the M1 was among the most advanced infantry rifles of the late 1930s, it was not an ideal weapon. Modifications were already beginning to be made to the basic M1 rifle's design during the last months of World War II. Changes included adding fully automatic firing capability and replacing the eight-round en bloc clips with a detachable box magazine holding 20 rounds. Winchester, Remington, a...
Infantry Board service rifle trials
The T44 participated in a competitive service rifle competition conducted by the Infantry Board at Fort Benning, Georgia against the Springfield T47 (a modified T25) and the T48, a variant of Fabrique Nationale's FN FAL (from "Fusil Automatique Leger", French for "light automatic rifle"). The T47, which did not have a bolt roller and performed worse in dust and cold weather tests than both the T44 and the T48, was dropped from consideration in 1953. During 1952–53, testing proved the T48 and...
Initial production contracts for the M14 were awarded to the Springfield Armory, Winchester, and Harrington & Richardson. Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Inc.(TRW) would later be awarded a production contract for the rifle as well. 1,376,031 M14 service rifles were produced from 1959 to 1964.
Stamped into receiver heel: 1. U.S. Rifle 2. 7.62-MM M14 3. Springfield Armory (or commercial contractor name) 4. Serial number
The M14 rifle was first furnished with a walnut stock, then with birch and finally with a synthetic (fiberglass) stock, which was adopted for use in damp jungle environments in Vietnam, since the wood versions would often become warped and swollen with moisture. The stock was also fitted with a hinged shoulder rest for improved user comfort when firing from a prone position.Original equipment walnut and birch stocks carry the Department of Defense acceptance stamp or cartouche (an arc of thre...
Standard M14 rifling has right-hand twistin 1:12 inches with 4 grooves.A U.S. soldier demonstrates shooting an M14 rifle to Iraqi Highway Patrol (IHP)police officers during training in Iraq, 2006.Members of the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit, enter the reeds on the edge of Lake Thartharin Iraq to conduct cordon and search operations July 15, 2007.A U.S. soldier scans for activity during a combat patrol in Afghanistan, 2009.A soldier with an M14 equipped with a Sage M14ALCS chassis stock.Afghanistan: Used by soldiers of the Afghan National Armypresidential guard for ceremonial duties.Argentina: Used by Argentine soldiers of C Company, Regimento (Especial) de Infanteria 25 in the Falklands War at the Battle of Goose Green and San Carlos.Australia: Small quantities of XM21 sniper variants were issued by the Australian Army in the Vietnam War. M14 EBRs were also fielded by Australian special operations forces in Afghanistan.Duff, Scott A., John M. Miller, and contributing editor David C. Clark. The M14 Owner's Guide and Match Conditioning Instructions. Export, Penn.: Scott A. Duff Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-888722-07-X.Murphy, Edward F. The Hill Fights: The First Battle of Khe Sanh. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89141-747-8.Pisor, Robert L. The End of the Line: The Siege of Khe Sanh. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2002. ISBN 0-393-32269-6.Rose, Alexander. American Rifle: A Biography. New York: Bantam Dell Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0-553-80517-8."How the M14 7.62 Rifle Operates" - US Army training film is available for free download at the Internet ArchiveFM 23-8 "Rifle 7.62mm, M14 and M14E2" Army Field Manual at the Internet Archive
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- Page Name - History
- Singularity Link
- 11 NM
- Out of Date?
- 16 NM Is 30 Nm?
- Comparison Table Nonsense - Revised
- Three Versions of Intel 14nm Process
- Samsung Has Multiple 14nm Processes
This page was renamed from "16 nanometer" to "14 nanometer" in June 2012. - Rod57 (talk) 09:03, 10 June 2018 (UTC)
I noticed that this article is linked to technological singularity, as a further shrinking trending. That sounds science fiction and not something serious, based on actual research and papers. Any opinions about this?Daniel de França02:28, 26 July 2007 (UTC) 1. That's the point, any predictions beyond 16 nm are really in the realm of speculation and science fictions.--184.108.40.206 22:08, 12 November 2007 (UTC) 1.1. I agree it's a matter of speculation, but isn't there a more appropriate article to link to, e.g. one summarizing potential ways to move onwards in CPU microarchitecture? Sure, if there is no such article, this one may do, but otherwise, I think it would be nice if the subject could be narrowed down from "technological singularity" as that is an abstract, rather than technical, article on the subject. When the subject being linked from is purely technical. — Northgrove17:03, 13 January 2008 (UTC) 1. 1.1. I don't think that it's reasonable to say that projecting the decre...
the roadmap of ITRS states 11nm in 2022 http://www.itrs.net/Links/2007ITRS/ExecSum2007.pdfbut 11 nm should come by 2015 and not 2022.can anyone interpret the data and update it at wiki 1. 2014 Gate Length should be 11nm. For 11nm node you´ll need a Gate Length around 5.6nm. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 09:32, 19 March 2008 (UTC) The 11 nm wiki article has been created, but obviously there are no substantial details to fill it with. Even 16 nm is really far out in the future. While it is possible CMOS and silicon can scale that far, the question may be would we prefer another platform altogether, like III-V or nanotubes or biology, etc. Guiding light (talk) 12:11, 25 March 2008 (UTC)
"In addition, the chemical effects of ionizing radiation also limit reliable resolution to about 50 nm" This is unclear to me - 32nm exists and 22nm is due in 2012 - is this old information or is it referring to a specific technique? 18.104.22.168 (talk) 01:24, 20 May 2010 (UTC) 1. There is also some "As of 2009ing" which clearly marks this article as out of date. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Cwlq (talk • contribs) 20:32, 23 February 2011 (UTC)
The sentence "However, for Intel, the design rule at this node designation is actually about 30 nm." does not mean anything to me, and I'm sure I'm not the only one. What design rule? What does this mean? 22.214.171.124 (talk) 04:58, 26 April 2011 (UTC) 1. I'm guessing it includes the spacing around the transistors. Imperi (talk) 05:25, 25 May 2011 (UTC)
Intel is going to switch from 22nm directly to 14nm in 2013-2014, and after that to 10nm around 2015-2016. Also TSMC is going to use 14nm around 2014-2015. I guess every nanometer start to be important now when are are close to 10nm. --126.96.36.199 (talk) 21:18, 15 January 2012 (UTC) 1. Sources would be nice. Oldest I've found is May 2011 Feb 2011 - see (sub) section below - Rod57 (talk) 09:50, 10 June 2018 (UTC) Announcement of 14nm technology by Globalfoundries:http://globalfoundries.com/technology/14XM.aspx -- 188.8.131.52 (talk) 04:31, 24 September 2012 (UTC)zebarnabe 1. Sadly GF website now only goes back to Jan 2013 and that URL and search don't seem to access the announcement. - Rod57 (talk) 09:14, 10 June 2018 (UTC)
The comparison table from this section was removed for the same exact reasons I wrote here: Talk:10_nanometer#comparison_section_is_garbage. --CyberXRef☎06:11, 12 May 2017 (UTC) ( Seems it was mostly the associated text that was controversial. After some discussion/evolution an updated version has survived in both articles.) - Rod57 (talk) 08:53, 10 June 2018 (UTC)
June 2018 mentions "intel ... 14nm+, used for Skylake-SP/X" and "Cascade Lake ... 14nm++" - Should/could these be additional columns in the Comparison of process nodes table ? - Rod57 (talk) 08:35, 10 June 2018 (UTC)
has 14LPE, 14LPP, 14LPC, 14LPU, and 11LPP ! Which of these should have a column in the table ? - Rod57 (talk) 12:19, 10 June 2018 (UTC)