The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts in Western Europe from 1337 to 1453, waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
- 24 May 1337 – 19 October 1453, (116 years, 4 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)
- Victory of French House of Valois and its allies, • House of Valois retains the French throne; English and French monarchies remain separate, • Agnatic primogeniture confirmed as the law of French royal succession, • Strengthening of the French monarchy, • House of Plantagenet is weakened, leading to the Wars of the Roses, • Rise of nationalistic identities in England and France, • English claims to the French throne de facto abandoned , • Decline of chivalry, • Decline of feudalism
Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.
Oct 17, 2020 · The murder of Samuel Paty, a French middle-school teacher, took place on 16 October 2020 in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, a suburb of Paris, France.Paty was killed and beheaded by Abdoullakh Abouyedovich Anzorov, an 18-year-old Muslim Russian refugee of Chechen origin.
The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, Europe, and a variety of regions throughout the world.
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In 1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured the city, it contained approximately 50,000 people. Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. The conquest of Constantinople followed a seven-week siege which had begun on 6 April 1453.
The following Kings of France continued the claim and used the Imperial titles and honors: Louis XII, Francis I, Henry II and Francis II. Not until Charles IX in 1566 did the imperial claim come to an eventual end through the rules of extinctive prescription as a direct result of desuetude or lack of use.
10 September - Hamida Djandoubi's is the last guillotine execution in France. 7 December - Launch of the Simca Horizon, a five-door medium-sized hatchback which will also be built in Britain as a Chrysler and the USA as a Plymouth and Dodge. It replaces the Simca 1100 in France, and runs alongside the Chrysler Avenger saloon and estate in Britain.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, tàpia in Catalan, pisé (de terre) in French, and hāngtǔ (夯土) in Chinese, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.
A book may be evaluated by a reader or professional writer to create a book review. A book may be read by a group of people to use as a spark for social or academic discussion, as in a book club. A book may be studied by students as the subject of a writing and analysis exercise in the form of a book report.
UEFA is the organiser of two of the most prestigious competitions in international football: The UEFA European Championship and the UEFA Nations League. The main competition for men's national teams is the UEFA European Championship (also known as the Euro), started in 1958, with the first finals in 1960 , and known as the European Nations Cup ...