Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English language underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period.
The word came to Latin Europe with Arabic numbers in the 12th century. In Europe the meaning was originally numeral zero as a positionholder, then any positional numeral, then numerically encoded message. The last meaning, and decipher, dates from the 1520s in English, 1490s in French, 1470s in Italian.
Mar 29, 2009 · Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and about 1470, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the introduction of the printing press into England by William Caxton in the 1470s, and slightly later by Richard Pynson.
This article about the development of themes in Italian Renaissance painting is an extension to the article Italian Renaissance painting, for which it provides additional pictures with commentary. The works encompassed are from Giotto in the early 14th century to Michelangelo 's Last Judgement of the 1530s.
Printing began in England in the 1470s, which tended to stabilise the language. With a standardised, printed English Bible and Prayer Book being read to church congregations from the 1540s onward, a wider public became familiar with a standard language, and the era of Modern English was under way.
from Late Latin syllabus "list" a misreading of Greek sittybos (plural of sittyba "... table of contents," ...) in a 1470s edition of Cicero's "Ad Atticum" iv.5 and 8. monosyllable (n.) 1530s, from Latin monosyllabus "of one syllable," from Greek monosyllabos ...
With Pomponio Leto, he produced a version of the poet Martial's Epigrammaton in the 1470s. A book on Martial, Cornu Copiae - part commentary, part dictionary - which was completed by Perotti in 1478 and printed after his death, in 1489, was another bestseller. One commentator calls it "a massive encyclopedia of the classical world.
It is has been claimed that in the 1470s, a fleet of several Danish ships sponsored by Christian I of Denmark set sail from Norway westwards to Greenland. The fleet was commanded by two German sailors and pirate hunters, Didrik Pining and Hans Pothorst, and the Portuguese João Vaz Corte-Real. It has been claimed that from the Western coast of Greenland they may have reached the North American mainland.
- Partial List of Beys and Mirzas
There were two groups of Nogais: those north of the Caspian Sea under their own Bey (leader), and those north of the Black Sea nominally subject to the Crimean Khan. The first group was broken up circa 1632 by the Kalmyks. The second shared the fate of the Khanate of Crimea. Nogai language was a form of Kypchak Turkic, the same language group as that of the neighboring Kazakhs, Bashkirs and Crimean and Kazan Tatars. Their religion was Muslim, but religious institutions were weakly developed. They were pastoral nomads grazing sheep, horses, and camels. Outside goods were obtained by trade (mostly horses and slaves), raiding, and tribute. There were some subject peasants along the Yaik river. One of the main sources of income for the Nogais was raiding for slaves, who were sold in Crimea and Bukhara. Hunting, fishing, caravan taxation, and seasonal agricultural migration also played a role although it is poorly documented. The basic social unit was the semi-autonomous...
Decline of the Golden Horde
1. 1299 Nogai Khan, the Mongol ruler for whom the Nogais were named 2. 1406-1419 Edigu, another subject and king-maker, founds Nogai dynasty 3. 1438 Kazan Khanatefounded 4. 1441 Crimean Khanatefounded 5. 1452 Kasimov 'khanate' founded. Beginning of Russian rule over Turkic Muslims 6. 1465 or 1480 Kazakh Khanatefounded 7. 1466 Astrakhan Khanatefounded 8. 1466 At this point the Golden Horde was left with only the steppe nomads, Saraiand some control over the caravan trade. The name "Great Horde...
1. c1509 Nogais move into lands vacated by Great Horde 2. 1519 end of Moscow-Crimean alliance 3. 1521 Nogais, driven west by the Kazakhs, cross Volga and attack Astrakhan 4. 1521 Crimea (50-60,000 horsemen) and Kazan attack Muscovy. Moscow besieged 5. c1522 Kazakhs capture Nogai capital 6. 1523 Crimea briefly takes Astrakhan, but its army and Khan are destroyed by the Nogais. 7. 1547-1584 Ivan the TerribleCzar of Russia 8. 1552 Kazan annexed by Russia. Nogais lose tribute 9. c1550-60 Disorder...
1. 1500-1850 Russian population expands southward and occupies forest-steppe and steppe. This is poorly documented 2. 1613-1643 Kalmyks, warlike Buddhist Mongols, move west from Dzungariaand occupy area from the Don to the Emba. Some eastern Nogais join Kazakhs and Karakalpaks. Others stay as Kalmyk subjects. Others cross the Volga southwest to the Kuban or west across Don, both groups becoming subjects of Crimea 3. 1619 Isterek Bey dies. Civil war. Status of Beyship uncertain after this 4. 1...Arslan Mirza, son of Kuchum, killed Yosuf, Keikuvatunder IsmaelKhodarkovsky, Michael "Russia's Steppe Frontier', 2004Related books by Willard Sunderland (Taming the Wild Field), Alan W Fisher (Crimean Tatars), Martha Brill Olcott (Volga Tatars) and Khodarkovsky (1992 'Where Two Worlds Met", on Kalmucks) can be fo...
Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Russian: Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Russian: Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.