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  1. Esther - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Esther

    Biblical Queen of Persia Esther Biblical Queen of Persia Queen Esther (1879) by Edwin Long Predecessor Vashti Born Hadassah Achaemenid Empire Spouse Ahasuerus Father Abihail (biological) Mordecai (adoptive) Religion Judaism Esther [a] is described in all versions [b] of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus. In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his ...

  2. Novel - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Literary_novel

    A novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era usually makes use of a literary prose style.The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, and the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century.

  3. Wikipedia:Featured article candidates/Featured log/June 2016

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Wikipedia:Featured_article

    Just to follow up, the template for these images, Commons: Cc-by-3.0-BollywoodHungama, says that (of course) it doesn't apply to images on their website where the copyright is owned by others, which means that these images have not necessarily been released. The template page says: "Don't just upload any images from there and put this license ...

  4. Middle English : definition of Middle English and synonyms of ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com › Middle English › en-en

    Printing began in England in the 1470s, which tended to stabilise the language. With a standardised, printed English Bible and Prayer Book being read to church congregations from the 1540s onward, a wider public became familiar with a standard language, and the era of Modern English was under way.

  5. Miniature (illuminated manuscript) - WikiMili, The Best ...

    wikimili.com › en › Miniature_(illuminated_manuscript)

    Dec 30, 2020 · Miniature of the Trojan Horse, from the Vergilius Romanus, a manuscript of Virgil's Aeneid, early 5th century.. The word miniature, derived from the Latin verb miniare ("to colour with minium," a red lead [1]) indicates a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that ...

  6. House of Plantagenet | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org › wiki › House_of_Plantagenet
    • Angevin Origins
    • Angevin Arrival in England
    • Angevin Decline
    • Expansion in Britain
    • Hundred Years' War
    • Plantagenet Cadet Branches
    • Henry VII, The Tudors and The Plantagenet Descendants

    The Angevins (/ændʒvɪns/, meaning from Anjou) were a family of Frankish origin descended from a ninth-century noble named Ingelger. They were Counts of Anjou since 870. The male line of Ingelger became extinct in 1060. The House of Plantagenet descended from a Count of Gâtinais who married the sister of the last count of the House of Ingelger. Fulk V, Count of Anjou, married his daughter Alice to the heir of Henry I of England, William Adelin, to address competition from Normandy, but the prince drowned in the wreck of the White Ship. Fulk then wed his daughter Sibylla to William Clito, heir to Henry's older brother, Robert Curthose. Henry had this marriage annulled because of the threat of a rival claim to his throne. Finally, Fulk married his son and heir, Geoffrey, to Henry's daughter and only surviving legitimate child, Matilda. This brought about the convergence of the Angevins, the House of Normandy and the House of Wessex to form the Plantagenet dynasty. Fulk then resigned hi...

    Matilda's father Henry I of England named her as heir to his large holdings in what are now France and England. But on Henry's death her cousin Stephen had himself proclaimed king. Geoffrey showed little interest in England, but he supported Matilda by entering Normandy to claim her inheritance. Matilda landed in England to challenge Stephen and was declared "Lady of the English" which resulted in a civil war called the Anarchy. When Matilda was forced to release Stephen in a hostage exchange for her half-brother Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, Stephen was re-crowned. Matilda was never crowned as the English conflict continued inconclusively. However, Geoffrey secured the Duchy of Normandy. Matilda's son, Henry II, by his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine had acquired the Duchy of Aquitaine and was now immensely rich. With skilful negotiation with the war-weary Barons of England and King Stephen, he agreed to the Treaty of Wallingfordand was recognised as Stephen's heir. Henry saw an...

    Richard was captured by Leopold on his return journey. Custody was passed to Henry the Lion and a tax of 25% of movables and income was required to pay the ransom of 100,000 marks, with a promise of 50,000 more. Philip II of France had overrun great swathes of Normandy while John of England controlled much of the remainder of Richard's lands. But, on his return to England, Richard forgave John and re-established his control. Leaving England in 1194 never to return, Richard battled Phillip for the next five years for the return of the holdings seized during his incarceration. Close to total victory he was injured by an arrow during the siege of Château de Châlus-Chabroland died after lingering injured for ten days. Richard's failure in his duty to provide an heir caused a succession crisis. Anjou, Brittany, Maine and Touraine chose Richard's nephew and nominated heir, Arthur, while John succeeded in England and Normandy. Yet again Philip II of France took the opportunity to destabili...

    Conquest of Wales

    From the beginning of his reign Edward I sought to organise his inherited territories. As a devotee of the cult of King Arthur he also attempted to enforce claims to primacy within the British Isles. Wales consisted of a number of princedoms, often in conflict with each other. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd held north Wales in fee to the English king under the Treaty of Woodstock, but had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position as Prince of Wales and maintained that his pr...

    Constitutional change and the reform of feudalism

    Because of his legal reforms Edward is sometimes called The English Justinian, although whether he was a reformer or an autocrat responding to events is debated. His campaigns left him in debt. This necessitated that he gain wider national support for his policies among lesser landowners, merchants and traders so that he could raise taxes through frequently summoned Parliaments. When Philip IV of Franceconfiscated the duchy of Gascony in 1294, more money was needed to wage war in France. To g...

    Anglo-Scottish wars

    Edward asserted that the king of Scotland owed him feudal allegiance, which embittered Anglo-Scottish relations for the rest of his reign. Edward intended to create a dual monarchy by marrying his son Edward to Margaret, Maid of Norway, who was the sole heir of Alexander III of Scotland. When Margaret died there was no obvious heir to the Scottish throne. Edward was invited by the Scottish magnates to resolve the dispute. Edward obtained recognition from the competitors for the Scottish thron...

    The War of Saint-Sardos, a short conflict between Edward and the Kingdom of France, led indirectly to Edward's overthrow. The French monarchy used the jurisdiction of the Parlement of Paris to overrule decisions of the nobility's courts. As a French vassal, Edward felt this encroachment in Gascony with the French kings adjudicating disputes between him and his French subjects. Without confrontation he could do little but watch the duchy shrink. Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, decided to resist one such judgement in Saint-Sardos with the result that Charles IV declared the duchy forfeit. Charles's sister, Queen Isabella, was sent to negotiate and agreed to a treaty that required Edward to pay homage in France to Charles. Edward resigned Aquitaine and Ponthieu to his son, Edward III, who travelled to France to give homage in his stead. With the English heir in her power, Isabella refused to return to England unless Edward II dismissed his favourites and also formed a relationsh...

    House of Lancaster

    Henry's accession by force broke the principles of Plantagenet succession; from this point any magnate with sufficient power and Plantagenet blood could consider the throne. His assertion that his mother had legitimate rights through descent from Edmund Crouchback, whom he claimed was the elder son of Henry III of England, set aside due to deformity, was not widely believed. Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was the heir presumptive to Richard II by being the grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st...

    Hundred Years' War (1415–53) – the Lancastrian war

    Henry IV died in 1413. His son and successor, Henry V of England was a successful and ruthless martial leader. Aware that Charles VI of France's mental illness had caused instability in France, he invaded to assert the Plantagenet claims, captured Harfleur, made a chevauchée to Calais and won a near total victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt, despite being outnumbered, outmanoeuvred and low on supplies. In subsequent years Henry recaptured much of Normandy and successfully secur...

    Wars of the Roses

    Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York's attitude to the marriage contract of Henry and Margaret of Anjou, which included the surrender of Maine and extended the truce with France, contributed to his appointment as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. This conveniently removed him from English and French politics on which he had influence as a descendent of both Lionel, Duke of Clarence, and Edmund, Duke of York. Conscious of the fate of Duke Humphrey at the hands of the Beauforts, and suspicious that Henr...

    Henry VII of England was crowned and married Edward's heiress Elizabeth of York to legitimise his reign. Henry battled for more than a decade to prevail over Plantagenet plots by Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. She sent Lambert Simnel, who purported to be her nephew Warwick, to Ireland. His army of Irish and Flemish supporters was defeated at the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487.The Duchess of Burgundy also claimed that Perkin Warbeck was Richard of Shrewsbury and twice supported invasions of England before Warbeck was captured and imprisoned in 1497. Warbeck's later escape attempt led to his execution and the execution of the last legitimate male line of the Plantagenets, Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, in 1499. When Henry Tudor seized the throne, there were numerous Plantagenet descendants who by later modern standards had a stronger right, including both his mother and future wife. By 1510 the number of claimants had increased by the birth of more than a dozen more...

  7. Johannes Gutenberg : definition of Johannes Gutenberg and ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com › Johannes Gutenberg › en-en

    Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg ( / j oʊ ˌ h ɑː n ɨ s ˈ ɡ uː t ən b ɜr ɡ / yoh-HAH-nəs GOO-tən-burɡ; c. 1398 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.

  8. Middle English - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

    wikimili.com › en › Middle_English

    Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period. Scholarly opinion varies, but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies th

  9. Popess/High Priestess - The Tarot Trumps, Some History, from ...

    tarotchristianbasis.blogspot.com › 2016 › 11

    Nov 06, 2016 · Place’s “to read between the lines” suggests an interpretation of the book she holds: its words and images could be frozen reminders of truths hidden behind the veil, just as the interpreters of texts such as the Bible saw levels of meaning behind or above the literal one.

  10. Tapestry - The Reader Wiki, Reader View of Wikipedia

    thereaderwiki.com › en › Tapestry

    Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike most woven textiles, where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible.

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