Vallone quotes a description of it as ‘the last great voice of the Guelph regalism of the Angevin tradition and the Aragonese connection’. A. embedded his commentary in the editio princeps of the Liber augustalis of 1475, or, perhaps, the second edition of 1506, collating it with manuscripts.
Hieroglyphs, for the 15th century humanists of the 1420s and 30s, were images of animals and other natural objects first used by the Egyptian priests for their sacred, along with common phonetic letters for other things; later, they thought, the Romans used hieroglyphs on temples and coins.
Nov 06, 2016 · Place’s “to read between the lines” suggests an interpretation of the book she holds: its words and images could be frozen reminders of truths hidden behind the veil, just as the interpreters of texts such as the Bible saw levels of meaning behind or above the literal one.
Rewriting history and redrawing boundaries are ancient political strategies for shaping national identity, nation-building and establishing territorial claims. Ethnicity and cultural heritage are especially powerful symbols, and therefore targets,
- Early Life
- Printing Press
- Printed Books
- Printing Method with Movable Type
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, the youngest son of the upper-class merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, and his second wife Else Wyrich, who was the daughter of a shopkeeper. According to some accounts Friele was a goldsmith for the bishop at Mainz, but most likely, he was involved in the cloth trade.Gutenberg's year of birth is not precisely known but was most likely around 1398. John Lienhard, technology historian, says "Most of Gutenberg's early life is a mystery. His father worked with the ecclesiastic mint. Gutenberg grew up knowing the trade of goldsmithing." This is supported by historian Heinrich Wallau, who adds, "In the 14th and 15th centuries his [descendants] claimed a hereditary position as ...the master of the archiepiscopal mint. In this capacity they doubtless acquired considerable knowledge and technical skill in metal working. They supplied the mint with the metal to be coined, changed the various species of coins, and had a seat at the ass...
Around 1439, Gutenberg was involved in a financial misadventure making polished metal mirrors (which were believed to capture holy light from religious relics) for sale to pilgrims to Aachen: in 1439 the city was planning to exhibit its collection of relics from Emperor Charlemagne but the event was delayed by one year due to a severe flood and the capital already spent could not be repaid. When the question of satisfying the investors came up, Gutenberg is said to have promised to share a "secret". It has been widely speculated that this secret may have been the idea of printing with movable type. Legend has it that the idea came to him "like a ray of light". Until at least 1444 he lived in Strasbourg, most likely in the St. Arbogast parish. It was in Strasbourg in 1440 that Gutenberg is said to have perfected and unveiled the secret of printing based on his research, mysteriously entitled Kunst und Aventur (art and enterprise). It is not clear what work he was engaged in,...
Between 1450 and 1455, Gutenberg printed several texts, some of which remain unidentified; his texts did not bear the printer's name or date, so attribution is possible only from typographical evidence and external references. Certainly several church documents including a papal letter and two indulgences were printed, one of which was issued in Mainz. Realizing the value of printing in quantity, seven editions in two styles were ordered, resulting in several thousand copies being printed. Some printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar by Aelius Donatusmay have been printed by Gutenberg; these have been dated either 1451–52 or 1455. In 1455, Gutenberg completed copies of a beautifully executed folio Bible (Biblia Sacra), with 42 lines on each page. Copies sold for 30 florins each,which was roughly three years' wages for an average clerk. Nonetheless, it was significantly cheaper than a manuscript Bible that could take a single scribe over a year to prepare...
Gutenberg's early printing process, and what tests he may have made with movable type, are not known in great detail. His later Bibles were printed in such a way as to have required large quantities of type, some estimates suggesting as many as 100,000 individual sorts.Setting each page would take, perhaps, half a day, and considering all the work in loading the press, inking the type, pulling the impressions, hanging up the sheets, distributing the type, etc., it is thought that the Gutenberg–Fust shop might have employed as many as 25 craftsmen. Gutenberg's technique of making movable type remains unclear. In the following decades, punches and copper matrices became standardized in the rapidly disseminating printing presses across Europe. Whether Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive version has been the subject of considerable debate. In the standard process of making type, a hard metal punch (made by punchcutting, with the letter carved back to...
Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, the printing technologies spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe much faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, it was a major catalyst for the later scientific revolution. The capital of printing in Europe shifted to Venice, where visionary printers like Aldus Manutius ensured widespread availability of the major Greek and Latin texts. The claims of an Italian origin for movable type have also focused on this rapid rise of Italy in movable-type printing. This may perhaps be explained by the prior eminence of Italy in the paper and printing trade. Additionally, Italy's economy was growing rapidly at the time, facilitating the spread of literacy. Christopher Columbushad a geographical book (printed by movable types) bought by his father. That book is in a Spanish museum. Finally, the city of Mainz was sacked in 1462, driving many...Childress, Diana (2008). Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-0-7613-4024-9Duchesne, Ricardo (2006). "Asia First?". The Journal of the Historical Society 6 (1): 69–91. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-5923.2006.00168.xJuchhoff, Rudolf (1950). "Was bleibt von den holländischen Ansprüchen auf die Erfindung der Typographie?". Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 128−133Wolf, Hans-Jürgen (1974). Geschichte der Druckpressen(1st ed.). Frankfurt/Main: Interprint
Standard biographic works on Gutenberg
1. Albert Kapr, Johann Gutenberg: the Man and his Invention. Translated from the German by Douglas Martin, Scolar Press, 1996. "Third ed., revised by the author for...the English translation.
On the effects of Gutenberg's printing
1. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. (1980). The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29955-1 2. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. (2005). The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (2nd, rev. ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-60774-4[More recent, abridged version] 3. Febvre, Lucien; Martin, Henri-Jean (1997). The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450-1800. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-108-2 4. Man, John (2002). The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story...The Digital Gutenberg Project: the Gutenberg Bible in 1,300 digital images, every page of the University of Texas at Austincopy.(French) Biographie de Johannes Gutenberg, inventeur de l'Imprimerie (a biography of Gutenberg at the Histoire et Geographie site).
In 1713 he opened a bookstore called La Bible d'or ("The Golden Bible") on the Quai des Grands-Augustins. François Didot was a learned man, and held by his colleagues in great esteem. François Didot was a learned man, and held by his colleagues in great esteem.
Aug 11, 2015 · In this post I want to discuss David Messer Leon, the teacher of both Joseph Delmidigo and Yohanan Alemanno, followed by the early part of the life of Yohanan Alemanno, up to the 1470s, including his probable influence on a Christian Hermeticist named Lodovico Lazzarelli, whose life I will also discuss up to that point.
Apr 01, 2008 · We see this term applied to the tarot images, although without Ficino's Neoplatonic perspective, in a c. 1565 anonymous essay on the tarot from central Italy (Caldwell, Depaulis, and Ponzi, Explaining the Tarot: Two Italian renaissance Essays on the Meaning of the Tarot Pack, p. 53), as well as by others later, none intending to imply anything ...
Apr 18, 2014 · The ancient Platonists, as Andrea describes, imagined the soul as journeying from heaven to earth at birth and then back again after death. Not only did they imagine the specific way-stations on the journey, in terms of various astral regions, but also described the process of getting from one to the next.
Feb 02, 2021 · Re: Jewish-Christian interactions in Italy before 1500 #43 by mikeh From Interlibrary Loan I got a copy of Arthur M. Lesley, Jr.'s Ph.D. dissertation, The Song of Solomon's Ascents by Yohannan Alemanno: Love and human perfection according to a Jewish colleague of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola , 1976.