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  1. Esther - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Esther

    Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus. In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti, refuses to obey him, and Esther is chosen for her beauty. The king's chief adviser, Haman, is offended by Esther's cousin and guardian, Mordecai, and gets permission ...

  2. Novel - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Early_novels
    • Defining The Genre
    • Early Novels
    • Medieval Period 1100–1500
    • Renaissance Period: 1500–1700
    • 18th Century Novels
    • 19th Century Novels
    • The 20th Century and Later
    • External Links

    A novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era usually makes use of a literary prose style. The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, and the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century.

    Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, and Elizabethan England, the European novel is often said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605. Globally, Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji (1010) is often described as the world's first novel and shows essentially all the qualities for which Marie de La Fayette's novel La Princesse de Clèves(1678) has been praised: individuality of perception, an interest in character development, and psychological observation. Early novels include works in Greek such as the Life of Aesop (c. 620 – 564 BCE), Lucian (c. 125 – after 180 AD)'s A True Story, the Alexander Romance and later novels Chariton's Callirhoe (mid-1st century), Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Clitophon (early-2nd century), Longus' Daphnis and Chloe (2nd century), Xenophon of Ephesus' Ephesian Tale (late-2nd century), and Heliodorus of Emesa's Aethiopica (third century), which inspire writers of medieva...

    Chivalric romances

    Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe. They were marvel-filled adventures, often of a knight-errant with heroic qualities, who undertakes a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on heterosexual love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, which involve heroism." In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a marked tendency t...

    The novella

    The term "novel" originates from the production of short stories, or novella that remained part of a European oral culture of storytelling into the late 19th century. Fairy tales, jokes, and humorous stories designed to make a point in a conversation, and the exemplum a priest would insert in a sermon belong into this tradition. Written collections of such stories circulated in a wide range of products from practical compilations of examples designed for the use of clerics to compilations of...

    The modern distinction between history and fiction did not exist in the early sixteenth century and the grossest improbabilities pervade many historical accounts found in the early modern print market. William Caxton's 1485 edition of Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (1471) was sold as a true history, though the story unfolded in a series of magical incidents and historical improbabilities. Sir John Mandeville's Voyages, written in the 14th century, but circulated in printed editions throughout the 18th century,was filled with natural wonders, which were accepted as fact, like the one-footed Ethiopians who use their extremity as an umbrella against the desert sun. Both works eventually came to be viewed as works of fiction. In the 16th and 17th centuries two factors led to the separation of history and fiction. The invention of printing immediately created a new market of comparatively cheap entertainment and knowledge in the form of chapbooks. The more elegant production of this g...

    The idea of the "rise of the novel" in the 18th century is especially associated with Ian Watt's influential study The Rise of the Novel (1957).[non-primary source needed]In Watt's conception, a rise in fictional realism during the 18th century came to distinguish the novel from earlier prose narratives.

    Romanticism

    The very word romanticism is connected to the idea of romance, and the romance genre experienced a revival, at the end of the 18th century, with gothic fiction, that began in 1764 with English author Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) "A Gothic Story". Other important works are Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and 'Monk' Lewis's The Monk(1795). The new romances challenged the idea that the novel involved a realistic depictions of life, and...

    The Victorian period: 1837–1901

    In the 19th century the relationship between authors, publishers, and readers, changed. Authors originally had only received payment for their manuscript, however, changes in copyright laws, which began in 18th and continued into 19th century promised royalties on all future editions. Another change in the 19th century was that novelists began to read their works in theaters, halls, and bookshops. Also during the nineteenth century the market for popular fiction grew, and competed with works...

    Modernism and post-modernism

    James Joyce's Ulysses (1922) had a major influence on modern novelists, in the way that it replaced the 18th- and 19th-century narrator with a text that attempted to record inner thoughts, or a "stream of consciousness". This term was first used by William James in 1890 and, along with the related term interior monologue, is used by modernists like Dorothy Richardson, Marcel Proust, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner. Also in the 1920s expressionist Alfred Döblin went in a different directi...

    Genre fiction

    See also: Thriller, Westerns and Speculative fiction While the reader of so-called serious literature will follow public discussions of novels, popular fiction production employs more direct and short-term marketing strategies by openly declarating of the work's genre. Popular novels are based entirely on the expectations for the particular genre, and this includes the creation of a series of novels with an identifiable brand name. e.g. the Sherlock Holmes series by Arthur Conan Doyle. Popula...

  3. Tapestry - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tapestry
    • Terms and Etymology
    • Production
    • Function
    • Early History
    • Peak Period, After About 1350
    • Subjects and Style
    • 17th Century
    • 18th Century
    • 19th Century
    • Outside Europe

    In English, "tapestry" has two senses, both of which apply to most of the works discussed here. Firstly it means work using the tapestry weaving technique described above and below, and secondly it means a rather large textile wall hanging with a figurative design. Some embroidered works, like the Bayeux Tapestry, meet the second definition but not the first. The situation is complicated by the French equivalent tapisserie also covering needlepointwork, which can lead to confusion, especially with pieces such as furniture covers, where both techniques are used. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest use in English was in a will of 1434, mentioning a "Lectum meum de tapstriwerke cum leonibus cum pelicano". They give a wide definition, covering: "A textile fabric decorated with designs of ornament or pictorial subjects, painted, embroidered, or woven in colours, used for wall hangings, curtains, covers for seats, ..." before mentioning "especially" those woven in a t...

    Tapestry is a type of weaving. Various designs of looms can be used, including upright or "high-warp" looms, where the tapestry is stretched vertically in front of the weaver, or horizontal "low-warp" looms, which were usual in large medieval and Renaissance workshops, but later mostly used for smaller pieces. The weaver always works on the back of the piece, and is normally following a full-size drawn or painted cartoon, or possibly another tapestry; depending on the set up, this reverses (is a mirror image of) the tapestry image. The cartoon was generally created from a smaller modello, which in "industrial" workshops from at least the late Middle Ages on was produced by a professional artist, who often had little or no further involvement in the process. The cartoon was traced onto the warp lines by the weaver, and then placed where it could still be seen, sometimes through a mirror, when it hung behind the weaver. With low-warp looms the cartoon was usually cut into strips and p...

    The success of decorative tapestry can be partially explained by its portability (Le Corbusier once called tapestries "nomadic murals"). The fully hand-woven tapestry form is more suitable for creating new figurative designs than other types of woven textile, and the looms could be much larger. Kings and noblemen could fold up and transport tapestries from one residence to another. Many kings had "wardrobe" departments with their own buildings devoted to the care, repair, and movement of tapestries, which were folded into large canvas bags and carried on carts. In churches, they were displayed on special occasions. Tapestries were also draped on the walls of palaces and castles for insulation during winter, as well as for decorative display. For special ceremonial processions such as coronations, royal entries and weddings, they would sometimes be displayed outside.The largest and best tapestries, designed for more public spaces in palaces, were only displayed on special occasions,...

    Ancient

    Much is unclear about the early history of tapestry, as actual survivals are very rare, and literary mentions in Greek, Roman and other literature almost never give enough detail to establish that a tapestry technique is being described. From ancient Egypt, tapestry weave pieces using linen were found in the tombs of both Thutmose IV (d. 1391 or 1388 BC) and Tutankhamen(c. 1323 BC), the latter a glove and a robe. Pieces in wool, given a wide range of dates around two millennia ago, have been...

    Early and High medieval

    The Hestia Tapestry from Byzantine Egypt around 500-550, is a largely intact wool piece with many figures around the enthroned goddess Hestia, who is named in Greek letters. It is 114 x 136.5 cm (44.9 x 53.7 inches) with a rounded top, and was presumably hung in a home, showing the persistence of Greco-Roman paganism at this late date. The Cleveland Museum of Art has a comparable enthroned Virgin Mary of similar date.Many of the small borders and patches with images with which the early Byzan...

    A decisive shift in European tapestry history came around 1350, and in many respects set the pattern for the industry until the end of its main period of importance, in the upheavals following the French Revolution. The tapestries made for the very small number of customers able to commission the best pieces were now extremely large, and extremely expensive, very often made in sets, and often showed complicated narrative or allegorical scenes with large numbers of figures. They were made in large workshops concentrated in a number of cities in a relatively small region of northern France and the Southern Netherlands (partly to be near supplies of English wool). By convention all these are often called "Flemish tapestries", although most of the production centres were not in fact in the County of Flanders. Before reaching the weaving workshop, the commissioning process typically involved a patron, an artist, and a merchant or dealer who sorted out the arrangements and contracts. Some...

    The new style of grand tapestries that were large and often in sets mostly showed subjects with large numbers of figures representing narrative subjects. The iconography of a high proportion of narrative tapestries goes back to written sources, the Bible and Ovid's Metamorphosesbeing two popular choices. It is a feature of tapestry weaving, in contrast to painting, that weaving an area of the work containing only relatively plain areas of the composition, such as sky, grass or water, still involves a relatively large amount of slow and skilled work. This, together with the client's expectation of an effect of overpowering magnificence, and the remoteness of the main centres from Italian influence, led to northern compositions remaining crammed with figures and other details long after classicizing trends in Italian Renaissance paintinghad reduced the crowding in paintings. An important challenge to the northern style was the arrival in Brussels, probably in 1516, of the Raphael Cart...

    The early part of the 17th century saw the taste for tapestry among the elite continuing, although painting was steadily gaining ground. Brussels remained much the most important weaving centre, and Rubens, mostly based in Antwerp not far away, brought the grand Baroque style to the medium, with Jacob Jordaens and others also designing many. In later generations important designers included Justus van Egmont (d. 1674), Ludwig van Schoor (d. 1702) and Jan van Orley (d. 1735, the last of a long-lasting dynasty). The Brussels workshops declined somehat in the second half of the century, both as large Flemish Baroque paintingstook some of their market, and French competition squeezed the remaining niche for tapestries. Production in Paris revived from 1608, flagging in the civil wars of the 1640s, but starting again in 1658 when Nicolas Fouquet founded a workshop. After his fall Colbert mostly merged this to the new Gobelins Manufactory he founded for the king in 1663, which continues t...

    Around the start of the century there was increased interest in landscape subjects, some still with hunting scenes, but others showing genre subjects of rural life. Few new workshops were begun in the century, the main exception being the Royal Tapestry Factory in Madrid. This was started in 1720, soon after Spain lost its territories in Flanders under the Treaty of Utrecht. Philip V of Spain brought Jacob van der Goten and six of his sons to Madrid. Much the best known tapestries are those designed by Francisco Goya from 1775. These mostly show genre scenes of lovers or country people recreating. Both his cartoons and the tapestries made from them mostly survive, with many of the cartoons in the Prado, and the tapestries still in the royal palaces. As with Raphael's cartoons for the Sistine Chapel tapestries, modern critics tend to prefer the cartoons. The works were privately owned by the van der Gotens and descendants until 1997, and the last member of the family resigned as chai...

    In the 19th century, William Morris resurrected the art of tapestry-making in the medieval style at Merton Abbey. Morris & Co. made successful series of tapestries for home and ecclesiastical uses, with figures based on cartoons by Edward Burne-Jones. The set of six Holy Grail tapestriesof the 1890s, repeated a number of times, are the largest they made, and perhaps the most successful. Traditional tapestries are still made at the Gobelins factory in Paris, and the royal factory in Madrid. They and a few other old European workshops also repair and restore old tapestries; the main British workshop is at Hampton Court Palace, a department of the Royal Collection Trust.

    The Chinese kesi is a tapestry weave, normally using silk on a small scale compared to European wall-hangings. Clothing for the court was one of the main uses. The density of knots is typically very high, with a gown of the best quality perhaps involving as much work as a much larger European tapestry. Initially used for small pieces, often with animal, bird and flower decoration, or dragons for imperial clothing, under the Ming dynastyit was used to copy paintings. The Death of Polydorus is one of an unusual set of seven large tapestry hangings made in China for the Portuguese governor of Macao in the 1620s, blending Western and Chinese styles. Most of the hangings are embroidery, but the faces and flesh parts of the figures are appliqué painted silk satin pieces, reflecting a Chinese technique often used for Buddhist banners, and the larger forms of thangka. Kilims and Navajo rugsare also types of tapestry work, the designs of both mostly restricted to geometrical patterns similar...

  4. Slavery and religion - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

    wikimili.com › en › Slavery_and_religion

    Historically, slavery has been regulated, supported or opposed on religious grounds.

  5. Spiritual (music) - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

    wikimili.com › en › Spiritual_(music)

    gospel music. Spirituals (also known as Negro spirituals, Spiritual music, or African-American spirituals) [1] [2] is a genre of songs originating in the United States and created by African Americans. [3] Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery. [4]

  6. (PDF) A Historical Research of the Ten Tribes Scattered Into ...

    www.academia.edu › 30701991 › A_Historical_Research

    Biblical Evidence: Overwhelming Scriptural evidence has been presented to the reader in this first division, including evidence from the Talmud and the Apocrypha’s, all supporting the fundamental Biblical evidence. In this division we categorizing

  7. List of Dutch inventions and innovations - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_Dutch_inventions

    Still-life painting as an independent genre or specialty first flourished in the Netherlands in the last quarter of the 16th century, and the English term derives from stilleven: still life, which is a calque, while Romance languages (as well as Greek, Polish, Russian and Turkish) tend to use terms meaning dead nature.

  8. Ludolph of Saxony - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia

    wikimili.com › en › Ludolph_of_Saxony

    His principal work, first printed in the 1470s, was the Vita Christi (Life of Christ). [1] It had significant influence on the development of techniques for Christian meditation by introducing the concept of immersing and projecting oneself into a Biblical scene about the life of Jesus which became popular among the Devotio Moderna community ...

  9. 2nd millennium : definition of 2nd millennium and synonyms of ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com › 2nd millennium › en-en

    The 2nd millennium was the thousand-year period that commenced on January 1, 1001 and ended on December 31, 2000, encompasses the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Early Modern Age, the age of Colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and culminates in the 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many ...

  10. Miniature (illuminated manuscript) - WikiMili, The Free ...

    wikimili.com › en › Miniature_(illuminated_manuscript)

    Dec 30, 2020 · Miniature of the Trojan Horse, from the Vergilius Romanus, a manuscript of Virgil's Aeneid, early 5th century.. The word miniature, derived from the Latin verb miniare ("to colour with minium," a red lead [1]) indicates a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that ...

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