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  1. Esther - Wikipedia › wiki › Esther

    Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus. In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti, refuses to obey him, and Esther is chosen for her beauty. The king's chief adviser, Haman, is offended by Esther's cousin and guardian, Mordecai, and gets permission ...

  2. Middle English - Wikipedia › wiki › Middle_English
    • History
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    • Sample Texts
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Transition from Old English

    The transition from Late Old Englishto Early Middle English occurred at some time during the 12th century. The influence of Old Norse aided the development of English from a synthetic language with relatively free word order, to a more analytic or isolating language with a more strict word order. Both Old English and Old Norse (as well as the descendants of the latter, Faroese and Icelandic) were synthetic languages with complicated inflections. The eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to comm...

    Early Middle English

    Early Middle English (1150–1300) has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary (with many Norse borrowings in the northern parts of the country), but a greatly simplified inflectional system. The grammatical relations that were expressed in Old English by the dative and instrumental cases are replaced in Early Middle English with prepositional constructions. The Old English genitive -es survives in the -'s of the modern English possessive, but most of the other case endings disappeared in the Early Mi...

    14th century

    From around the early 14th century, there was significant migration into London, particularly from the counties of the East Midlands, and a new prestige London dialect began to develop, based chiefly on the speech of the East Midlands, but also influenced by that of other regions. The writing of this period, however, continues to reflect a variety of regional forms of English. The Ayenbite of Inwyt, a translation of a French confessional prose work, completed in 1340, is written in a Kentish...

    The main changes between the Old English sound system and that of Middle Englishinclude: 1. Emergence of the voiced fricatives /v/, /ð/, /z/ as separate phonemes, rather than mere allophones of the corresponding voicelessfricatives. 2. Reduction of the Old English diphthongs to monophthongs, and the emergence of new diphthongs due to vowel breaking in certain positions, change of Old English post-vocalic /j/, /w/ (sometimes resulting from the [ɣ] allophone of /ɡ/) to offglides, and borrowing from French. 3. Merging of Old English /æ/ and /ɑ/ into a single vowel /a/. 4. Raising of the long vowel /æː/ to /ɛː/. 5. Rounding of /ɑː/ to /ɔː/in the southern dialects. 6. Unrounding of the front rounded vowelsin most dialects. 7. Lengthening of vowels in open syllables (and in certain other positions). The resultant long vowels (and other pre-existing long vowels) subsequently underwent changes of quality in the Great Vowel Shift, which began during the later Middle English period. 8. Loss o...


    Middle English retains only two distinct noun-ending patterns from the more complex system of inflection in Old English: Some nouns of the strong type have an -e in the nominative/accusative singular, like the weak declension, but otherwise strong endings. Often these are the same nouns that had an -e in the nominative/accusative singular of Old English (they, in turn, were inherited from Proto-Germanic ja-stem and i-stem nouns). The distinct dative case was lost in early Middle English. The...


    Single syllable adjectives add -e when modifying a noun in the plural and when used after the definite article (þe), after a demonstrative (þis, þat), after a possessive pronoun (e.g. hir, our), or with a name or in a form of address. This derives from the Old English "weak" declension of adjectives. This inflexion continued to be used in writing even after final -e had ceased to be pronounced.In earlier texts, multi-syllable adjectives also receive a final -e in these situations, but this oc...


    Middle English personal pronouns were mostly developed from those of Old English, with the exception of the third-person plural, a borrowing from Old Norse (the original Old English form clashed with the third person singular and was eventually dropped). Also, the nominative form of the feminine third-person singular was replaced by a form of the demonstrative that developed into sche (modern she), but the alternative heyrremained in some areas for a long time. As with nouns, there was some i...

    With the discontinuation of the Late West Saxon standard used for the writing of Old English in the period prior to the Norman Conquest, Middle English came to be written in a wide variety of scribal forms, reflecting different regional dialects and orthographic conventions. Later in the Middle English period, however, and particularly with the development of the Chancery Standard in the 15th century, orthography became relatively standardised in a form based on the East Midlands-influenced speech of London. Spelling at the time was mostly quite regular (there was a fairly consistent correspondence between letters and sounds). The irregularity of present-day English orthography is largely due to pronunciation changes that have taken place over the Early Modern English and Modern Englisheras. Middle English generally did not have silent letters. For example, knight was pronounced [ˈkniçt] (with both the ⟨k⟩ and the ⟨gh⟩ pronounced, the latter sounding as the ⟨ch⟩ in German Knecht). T...

    Most of the following Modern English translations are poetic sense-for-sense translations, not word-for-word translations.

    Brunner, Karl (1962) Abriss der mittelenglischen Grammatik; 5. Auflage. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer (1st ed. Halle (Saale): M. Niemeyer, 1938)
    Brunner, Karl (1963) An Outline of Middle English Grammar; translated by Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell
    Burrow, J. A.; Turville-Petre, Thorlac (2005). A Book of Middle English(3 ed.). Blackwell.
    A. L. Mayhew and Walter William Skeat. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English from A.D. 1150 to 1580
    Oliver Farrar Emerson, ed. (1915). A Middle English Reader. Macmillan.With grammatical introduction, notes, and glossary.
  3. History of geometry - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_geometry

    Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ( arithmetic ). Classic geometry was focused in compass and straightedge constructions.

  4. Novel - Wikipedia › wiki › Novels

    A novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era usually makes use of a literary prose style. The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, and the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century.

  5. Women in piracy - Wikipedia › wiki › Women_in_piracy

    Dieu-Le-Veut was a nickname meaning "God wills it" and given to her as it seemed anything she wanted God gave her. Married to a pirate, Anne challenged pirate Laurens de Graaf to a duel after he killed her husband in 1683. He refused and she became his common law wife, fighting by his side and sharing command.

  6. Poland - Wikipedia › wiki › Lenkija

    Poland is a developed market and a regional power in Central Europe; it has the sixth largest economy in the European Union by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by GDP (PPP). It provides very high standards of living, safety and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system.

  7. Printing began in England in the 1470s, which tended to stabilise the language. With a standardised, printed English Bible and Prayer Book being read to church congregations from the 1540s onward, a wider public became familiar with a standard language, and the era of Modern English was under way.

  8. Biblical Evidence: Overwhelming Scriptural evidence has been presented to the reader in this first division, including evidence from the Talmud and the Apocrypha’s, all supporting the fundamental Biblical evidence. In this division we categorizing

  9. (PDF) Prose Fiction: An Overview | Joseph Chuks - › 36339699 › Prose_Fiction

    Prose Fiction: An Overview TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Prose 1 1.1.1 Structure 4 1.1.2 Types 4 1.2 Fiction 4 1.2.1 Genre Fiction 6 1.2.2 Literary fiction 7 1.2.3 Realism 8 1.3 Prose fiction 9 1.3.1 Prose Fiction and History 11 2.0 ORIGINS OF PROSE FICTION 12 2.1 Origin 13 2.2 The Epic 13 2.2.1 The Epic of Gilgamesh 15 2.3 The Bible 15 2.4 Romance 17 2.5 Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 ...

  10. The English dialect of these poems from the Midlands is markedly different from that of the London-based Chaucer and, though influenced by French in the scenes at court in Sir Gawain, there are in the poems also many dialect words, often of Scandinavian origin, that belonged to northwest England.Middle English lasts up until the 1470s, when the ...

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