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  1. Esther - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Esther

    Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus. In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti, refuses to obey him, and Esther is chosen for her beauty. The king's chief adviser, Haman, is offended by Esther's cousin and guardian, Mordecai, and gets permission ...

  2. History of geometry - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ancient_Greek_geometry

    Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ( arithmetic ). Classic geometry was focused in compass and straightedge constructions.

  3. Poland - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Lenkija

    Poland is a developed market, and a middle power. It has the sixth largest economy in the European Union by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by GDP (PPP). It provides very high standards of living, safety and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system.

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  4. Middle English - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Middle_English-speaking
    • History
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    • Sample Texts
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Transition from Old English

    Transition from Late Old Englishto Early Middle English occurred at some time during the 12th century. The influence of Old Norse aided the development of English from a synthetic language with relatively free word order, to a more analytic or isolating language with a more strict word order. Both Old English and Old Norse (as well as the descendants of the latter, Faroese and Icelandic) were synthetic languages with complicated inflections. The eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to communic...

    Early Middle English

    Early Middle English (1150–1300) has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary (with many Norse borrowings in the northern parts of the country), but a greatly simplified inflectional system. The grammatical relations that were expressed in Old English by the dative and instrumental cases are replaced in Early Middle English with prepositional constructions. The Old English genitive -es survives in the -'s of the modern English possessive, but most of the other case endings disappeared in the Early Mi...

    14th century

    From around the early 14th century, there was significant migration into London, particularly from the counties of the East Midlands, and a new prestige London dialect began to develop, based chiefly on the speech of the East Midlands, but also influenced by that of other regions. The writing of this period, however, continues to reflect a variety of regional forms of English. The Ayenbite of Inwyt, a translation of a French confessional prose work, completed in 1340, is written in a Kentish...

    The main changes between the Old English sound system and that of Middle Englishinclude: 1. Emergence of the voiced fricatives /v/, /ð/, /z/ as separate phonemes, rather than mere allophones of the corresponding voicelessfricatives. 2. Reduction of the Old English diphthongs to monophthongs, and the emergence of new diphthongs due to vowel breaking in certain positions, change of Old English post-vocalic /j/, /w/ (sometimes resulting from the [ɣ] allophone of /ɡ/) to offglides, and borrowing from French. 3. Merging of Old English /æ/ and /ɑ/ into a single vowel /a/. 4. Raising of the long vowel /æː/ to /ɛː/. 5. Rounding of /ɑː/ to /ɔː/in the southern dialects. 6. Unrounding of the front rounded vowelsin most dialects. 7. Lengthening of vowels in open syllables (and in certain other positions). The resultant long vowels (and other pre-existing long vowels) subsequently underwent changes of quality in the Great Vowel Shift, which began during the later Middle English period. 8. Loss o...

    Nouns

    Middle English retains only two distinct noun-ending patterns from the more complex system of inflection in Old English: Some nouns of the strong type have an -e in the nominative/accusative singular, like the weak declension, but otherwise strong endings. Often these are the same nouns that had an -e in the nominative/accusative singular of Old English (they, in turn, were inherited from Proto-Germanic ja-stem and i-stem nouns). The distinct dative case was lost in early Middle English. The...

    Adjectives

    Single syllable adjectives add -e when modifying a noun in the plural and when used after the definite article (þe), after a demonstrative (þis, þat), after a possessive pronoun (e.g. hir, our), or with a name or in a form of address. This derives from the Old English "weak" declension of adjectives. This inflexion continued to be used in writing even after final -e had ceased to be pronounced.In earlier texts, multi-syllable adjectives also receive a final -e in these situations, but this oc...

    Pronouns

    Middle English personal pronouns were mostly developed from those of Old English, with the exception of the third-person plural, a borrowing from Old Norse (the original Old English form clashed with the third person singular and was eventually dropped). Also, the nominative form of the feminine third-person singular was replaced by a form of the demonstrative that developed into sche (modern she), but the alternative heyrremained in some areas for a long time. As with nouns, there was some i...

    With the discontinuation of the Late West Saxon standard used for the writing of Old English in the period prior to the Norman Conquest, Middle English came to be written in a wide variety of scribal forms, reflecting different regional dialects and orthographic conventions. Later in the Middle English period, however, and particularly with the development of the Chancery Standard in the 15th century, orthography became relatively standardised in a form based on the East Midlands-influenced speech of London. Spelling at the time was mostly quite regular (there was a fairly consistent correspondence between letters and sounds). The irregularity of present-day English orthography is largely due to pronunciation changes that have taken place over the Early Modern English and Modern Englisheras. Middle English generally did not have silent letters. For example, knight was pronounced [ˈkniçt] (with both the ⟨k⟩ and the ⟨gh⟩ pronounced, the latter sounding as the ⟨ch⟩ in German Knecht). T...

    Most of the following modern English translations are poetic sense-for-sense translations, not word-for-word translations.

    Brunner, Karl (1962) Abriss der mittelenglischen Grammatik; 5. Auflage. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer (1st ed. Halle (Saale): M. Niemeyer, 1938)
    Brunner, Karl (1963) An Outline of Middle English Grammar; translated by Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell
    Burrow, J. A.; Turville-Petre, Thorlac (2005). A Book of Middle English(3 ed.). Blackwell.
    A. L. Mayhew and Walter William Skeat. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English from A.D. 1150 to 1580
    Oliver Farrar Emerson, ed. (1915). A Middle English Reader. Macmillan.With grammatical introduction, notes, and glossary.
  5. (PDF) Prose Fiction: An Overview | Joseph Chuks - Academia.edu

    www.academia.edu › 36339699 › Prose_Fiction

    Prose Fiction: An Overview TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Prose 1 1.1.1 Structure 4 1.1.2 Types 4 1.2 Fiction 4 1.2.1 Genre Fiction 6 1.2.2 Literary fiction 7 1.2.3 Realism 8 1.3 Prose fiction 9 1.3.1 Prose Fiction and History 11 2.0 ORIGINS OF PROSE FICTION 12 2.1 Origin 13 2.2 The Epic 13 2.2.1 The Epic of Gilgamesh 15 2.3 The Bible 15 2.4 Romance 17 2.5 Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 ...

  6. (PDF) A Historical Research of the Ten Tribes Scattered Into ...

    www.academia.edu › 30701991 › A_Historical_Research

    Biblical Evidence: Overwhelming Scriptural evidence has been presented to the reader in this first division, including evidence from the Talmud and the Apocrypha’s, all supporting the fundamental Biblical evidence. In this division we categorizing

  7. The English dialect of these poems from the Midlands is markedly different from that of the London-based Chaucer and, though influenced by French in the scenes at court in Sir Gawain, there are in the poems also many dialect words, often of Scandinavian origin, that belonged to northwest England.Middle English lasts up until the 1470s, when the ...

  8. queSera - Language and History

    langnhist.weebly.com › queSera

    Abstract: “Que sera sera” has become a proverb in English, meaning “What will be will be”: an expression of cheerful fatalism. Today it appears in spellings that resemble those of Spanish (usually), Italian (less often), or French (occasionally), but it is ungrammatical in all three of these languages, based on an erroneous merger of the English “free relative” what (‘ that which ...

  9. Middle English — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Middle_English
    • History
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    • Sample Texts
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Transition from Old English

    The tran­si­tion from Late Old Eng­lishto Early Mid­dle Eng­lish oc­curred at some time dur­ing the 12th cen­tury. The in­flu­ence of Old Norse aided the de­vel­op­ment of Eng­lish from a syn­thetic lan­guage with rel­a­tively free word order, to a more an­a­lytic or iso­lat­ing lan­guage with a more strict word order. Both Old Eng­lish and Old Norse (as well as the de­scen­dants of the lat­ter, Faroese and Ice­landic) were syn­thetic lan­guages with com­pli­cated in­flec­tions. The ea­ger­ne...

    Early Middle English

    Early Mid­dle Eng­lish (1150–1300) has a largely An­glo-Saxon vo­cab­u­lary (with many Norse bor­row­ings in the north­ern parts of the coun­try), but a greatly sim­pli­fied in­flec­tional sys­tem. The gram­mat­i­cal re­la­tions that were ex­pressed in Old Eng­lish by the da­tive and in­stru­men­tal cases are re­placed in Early Mid­dle Eng­lish with prepo­si­tional con­struc­tions. The Old Eng­lish gen­i­tive -es sur­vives in the -'s of the mod­ern Eng­lish pos­ses­sive, but most of the other...

    14th century

    From around the early 14th cen­tury, there was sig­nif­i­cant mi­gra­tion into Lon­don, par­tic­u­larly from the coun­ties of the East Mid­lands, and a new pres­tige Lon­don di­alect began to de­velop, based chiefly on the speech of the East Mid­lands, but also in­flu­enced by that of other regions. The writ­ing of this pe­riod, how­ever, con­tin­ues to re­flect a va­ri­ety of re­gional forms of Eng­lish. The Ayen­bite of Inwyt, a trans­la­tion of a French con­fes­sional prose work, com­plete...

    The main changes be­tween the Old Eng­lish sound sys­tem and that of Mid­dle Eng­lishin­clude: 1. Emergence of the voiced fricatives /v/, /ð/, /z/ as separate phonemes, rather than mere allophones of the corresponding voicelessfricatives. 2. Reduction of the Old English diphthongs to monophthongs, and the emergence of new diphthongs due to vowel breaking in certain positions, change of Old English post-vocalic /j/, /w/ (sometimes resulting from the [ɣ] allophone of /ɡ/) to offglides, and borrowing from French. 3. Merging of Old English /æ/ and /ɑ/ into a single vowel /a/. 4. Raising of the long vowel /æː/ to /ɛː/. 5. Rounding of /ɑː/ to /ɔː/in the southern dialects. 6. Unrounding of the front rounded vowelsin most dialects. 7. Lengthening of vowels in open syllables (and in certain other positions). The resultant long vowels (and other pre-existing long vowels) subsequently underwent changes of quality in the Great Vowel Shift, which began during the later Middle English period. 8....

    Nouns

    Mid­dle Eng­lish re­tains only two dis­tinct noun-end­ing pat­terns from the more com­plex sys­tem of in­flec­tion in Old Eng­lish: Some nouns of the strong type have an -e in the nom­i­na­tive/ac­cusative sin­gu­lar, like the weak de­clen­sion, but oth­er­wise strong end­ings. Often these are the same nouns that had an -e in the nom­i­na­tive/ac­cusative sin­gu­lar of Old Eng­lish (they, in turn, were in­her­ited from Proto-Ger­manic ja-stem and i-stem nouns). The dis­tinct da­tive case was...

    Adjectives

    Sin­gle syl­la­ble ad­jec­tives add -e when mod­i­fy­ing a noun in the plural and when used after the def­i­nite ar­ti­cle (þe), after a demon­stra­tive (þis, þat), after a pos­ses­sive pro­noun (e.g. hir, our), or with a name or in a form of ad­dress. This de­rives from the Old Eng­lish "weak" de­clen­sion of adjectives. This in­flex­ion con­tin­ued to be used in writ­ing even after final -e had ceased to be pronounced.In ear­lier texts, multi-syl­la­ble ad­jec­tives also re­ceive a final -e...

    Pronouns

    Mid­dle Eng­lish per­sonal pro­nouns were mostly de­vel­oped from those of Old Eng­lish, with the ex­cep­tion of the third-per­son plural, a bor­row­ing from Old Norse (the orig­i­nal Old Eng­lish form clashed with the third per­son sin­gu­lar and was even­tu­ally dropped). Also, the nom­i­na­tive form of the fem­i­nine third-per­son sin­gu­lar was re­placed by a form of the demon­stra­tive that de­vel­oped into sche (mod­ern she), but the al­ter­na­tive heyrre­mained in some areas for a long...

    With the dis­con­tin­u­a­tion of the Late West Saxon stan­dard used for the writ­ing of Old Eng­lish in the pe­riod prior to the Nor­man Con­quest, Mid­dle Eng­lish came to be writ­ten in a wide va­ri­ety of scribal forms, re­flect­ing dif­fer­ent re­gional di­alects and or­tho­graphic con­ven­tions. Later in the Mid­dle Eng­lish pe­riod, how­ever, and par­tic­u­larly with the de­vel­op­ment of the Chancery Stan­dard in the 15th cen­tury, or­thog­ra­phy be­came rel­a­tively stan­dard­ised in a form based on the East Mid­lands-in­flu­enced speech of Lon­don. Spelling at the time was mostly quite reg­u­lar (there was a fairly con­sis­tent cor­re­spon­dence be­tween let­ters and sounds). The ir­reg­u­lar­ity of pre­sent-day Eng­lish or­thog­ra­phy is largely due to pro­nun­ci­a­tion changes that have taken place over the Early Mod­ern Eng­lish and Mod­ern Eng­lisheras. Mid­dle Eng­lish gen­er­ally did not have silent let­ters. For ex­am­ple, knight was pro­nounced [ˈkniçt] (with both t...

    Most of the fol­low­ing Mod­ern Eng­lish trans­la­tions are po­etic sense-for-sense trans­la­tions, not word-for-word trans­la­tions.

    Brunner, Karl (1962) Abriss der mittelenglischen Grammatik; 5. Auflage. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer (1st ed. Halle (Saale): M. Niemeyer, 1938)
    Brunner, Karl (1963) An Outline of Middle English Grammar; translated by Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell
    Burrow, J. A.; Turville-Petre, Thorlac (2005). A Book of Middle English(3 ed.). Blackwell.
    A. L. Mayhew and Walter William Skeat. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English from A.D. 1150 to 1580
    Oliver Farrar Emerson, ed. (1915). A Middle English Reader. Macmillan.With grammatical introduction, notes, and glossary.
  10. Literature In English Pdf - everpk

    everpk.weebly.com › literature-in-english-pdf

    Middle English Bible translations, notably Wycliffe's Bible, helped to establish English as a literary language. Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wycliffe. They appeared between about 1382 and 1395. [29]

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