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  1. Middle English - Wikipedia

    A significant number of words of French origin began to appear in the English language alongside native English words of similar meaning, giving rise to such Modern English synonyms as pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton, wood/forest, house/mansion, worthy/valuable, bold/courageous, freedom/liberty, sight/vision, eat/dine.

  2. ^In the name "Ōnin War," the noun "Ōnin" refers to the nengō (Japanese era name) after "Bunshō" and before "Bunmei." In other words, the Ōnin War occurred during Ōnin, which was a time period spanning the years from 1467 through 1469.

  3. Wiktionary:Etymology scriptorium/2016/June - Wiktionary

    We reconstruct a Proto-Germanic form, but the German and Dutch standard sources agree that their respective words are of Romance origin (). The word is first attested in German in 1361 and in Dutch in 1477, that is significantly younger than the Old French (1270).

  4. William Tell : definition of William Tell and synonyms of ... Tell/en-en

    A roughly equally early account of Tell is found in the Tellenlied, a song composed during the 1470s, its oldest extant manuscript copy dating to 1501. This song begins with the Tell legend, which it presents as the origin of the Confederacy, calling Tell the "first confederate". The narrative presented includes Tell's apple-shot, his ...

  5. niccolo perotti : definition of niccolo perotti and synonyms ... perotti/en-en

    With Pomponio Leto, he produced a version of the poet Martial's Epigrammaton in the 1470s. A book on Martial, Cornu Copiae - part commentary, part dictionary - which was completed by Perotti in 1478 and printed after his death, in 1489, was another bestseller. One commentator calls it "a massive encyclopedia of the classical world.

    • Origins
    • Carracks in Asia
    • Famous Carracks
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    By the Late Middle Ages the cog, and cog-like square-rigged vessels, were widely used along the coasts of Europe, in the Baltic, and also in the Mediterranean. Given the conditions of the Mediterrenean, but not exclusively restricted to it, galley type vessels were extensively used there, as were various two masted vessels, including the caravels with their lateen sails. These and similar ship types were familiar to Portuguese navigators and shipwrights. As the Portuguese gradually extended their explorations and trade ever further south along Africa's Atlantic coast during the 15th century they needed a larger and more advanced ship for their long oceanic adventures. Gradually, they developed the carrack[2]from a fusion and modification of aspects of the ship types they knew operating in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean and a new, more advanced form of sail rigging that allowed much improved sailing characteristics in the heavy winds and waves of the Atlantic ocean. A typical th...

    From around 1515, Portugal had trade exchanges with Goa in India, consisting of 3 to 4 carracks leaving Lisbon with silver to purchase cotton and spices in India. Out of these, only one carrack went on to Ming Chinain order to purchase silk, also in exchange for Portuguese silver. From the time of the acquisition of Macau in 1557, and their formal recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese Crown started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder the annual "Captaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year. That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited on the grounds that the ships were smuggling priests into Japan. In the middle of the 16th century the first galleonswere developed from the carrack. The galleon design came to replace that of the carrack although carracks were still in use as late as the early 17th century.

    Santa María, in which Christopher Columbusmade his first voyage to America in 1492.
    São Gabriel, commanded by Vasco da Gamain the 1497 Portuguese expedition from Europe to India by circumnavigating Africa.
    Frol de la mar, served over nine years in the Indian Ocean, sinking in 1512 with Afonso de Albuquerque after the conquest of Malaccawith a huge booty, making it one of the mythical lost treasures.
    ^ Konstam, A. (2002). The History of Shipwrecks. New York: Lyons Press. pp. 77–79. ISBN 1-58574-620-7.
    ^ The origin of the word carrack is usually traced back through the medieval European languages to the Arabic, and from thence to the Greek κέρκουρος (kerkouros) meaning approximately "lighter (bar...
    Kirsch, Peter (1990). The Galleon. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-546-2.
    Nair, V. Sankaran (2008). Kerala Coast: A Byway in History. (Carrack: Word Lore). Trivandrum: Folio. ISBN 978-81-906028-1-5.
    The Development of the Square-Rigged Ship: from the carrack to the full-rigger
  6. Nogai Horde : definition of Nogai Horde and synonyms of Nogai ... Horde/en-en
    • Society
    • History
    • Partial List of Beys and Mirzas
    • References

    There were two groups of Nogais: those north of the Caspian Sea under their own Bey (leader), and those north of the Black Sea nominally subject to the Crimean Khan. The first group was broken up circa 1632 by the Kalmyks. The second shared the fate of the Khanate of Crimea. Nogai language was a form of Kypchak Turkic, the same language group as that of the neighboring Kazakhs, Bashkirs and Crimean and Kazan Tatars. Their religion was Muslim, but religious institutions were weakly developed.[citation needed] They were pastoral nomads grazing sheep, horses, and camels. Outside goods were obtained by trade (mostly horses and slaves), raiding, and tribute. There were some subject peasants along the Yaik river. One of the main sources of income for the Nogais was raiding for slaves, who were sold in Crimea and Bukhara. Hunting, fishing, caravan taxation, and seasonal agricultural migration also played a role although it is poorly documented. The basic social unit was the semi-autonomous...

    Decline of the Golden Horde

    1. 1299 Nogai Khan, the Mongol ruler for whom the Nogais were named 2. 1406-1419 Edigu, another subject and king-maker, founds Nogai dynasty 3. 1438 Kazan Khanatefounded 4. 1441 Crimean Khanatefounded 5. 1452 Kasimov 'khanate' founded. Beginning of Russian rule over Turkic Muslims 6. 1465 or 1480 Kazakh Khanatefounded 7. 1466 Astrakhan Khanatefounded 8. 1466 At this point the Golden Horde was left with only the steppe nomads, Saraiand some control over the caravan trade. The name "Great Horde...


    1. c1509 Nogais move into lands vacated by Great Horde 2. 1519 end of Moscow-Crimean alliance 3. 1521 Nogais, driven west by the Kazakhs, cross Volga and attack Astrakhan 4. 1521 Crimea (50-60,000 horsemen) and Kazan attack Muscovy. Moscow besieged 5. c1522 Kazakhs capture Nogai capital 6. 1523 Crimea briefly takes Astrakhan, but its army and Khan are destroyed by the Nogais. 7. 1547-1584 Ivan the TerribleCzar of Russia 8. 1552 Kazan annexed by Russia. Nogais lose tribute 9. c1550-60 Disorder...


    1. 1500-1850 Russian population expands southward and occupies forest-steppe and steppe. This is poorly documented 2. 1613-1643 Kalmyks, warlike Buddhist Mongols, move west from Dzungariaand occupy area from the Don to the Emba. Some eastern Nogais join Kazakhs and Karakalpaks. Others stay as Kalmyk subjects. Others cross the Volga southwest to the Kuban or west across Don, both groups becoming subjects of Crimea 3. 1619 Isterek Bey dies. Civil war. Status of Beyship uncertain after this 4. 1...

    Khodarkovsky, Michael "Russia's Steppe Frontier', 2004
    Related books by Willard Sunderland (Taming the Wild Field), Alan W Fisher (Crimean Tatars), Martha Brill Olcott (Volga Tatars) and Khodarkovsky (1992 'Where Two Worlds Met", on Kalmucks) can be fo...
  7. Wiktionary:Tea room/2017/November - Wiktionary

    As Cartagena is being traduced, most people go for the name "New Carthago", as eg. New York, New Jersey, etc., meaning a copy of a city in the colonisator's country. The history of Cartagena - Spain might be quite similar as being the "New" edition of an existing name in the country of origin.

  8. Syllabus - Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

    For, in accordance with the peculiar character of the Syllabus, the meaning of the thesis is determined by the meaning of the document it is drawn from. Thus the often-cited eightieth thesis "The pope may and must reconcile himself with, and adapt himself to, Progress, Liberalism, and Modern Civilization", is to be explained with the help of ...

  9. Middle English

    A significant number of words of French origin began to appear in the English language alongside native English words of similar meaning, giving rise to such Modern English synonyms as pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton, wood/forest, house/mansion, worthy/valuable, bold/courageous, freedom/liberty, sight/vision, eat/dine.

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