Dec 16, 1971 · December 16, 1971 is considered as the darkest day in our history. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Dec 16, 2020 · Live. •. 14. Shares. On 16 December 1971, General Yahya Khan made a speech after surrendering East Pakistan to the Indian forces. However, he still maintained that the fighting will continue. The speech is a proof that the state propaganda was going on even after the army had laid down the arms.
Dec 16, 2020 · 49 years ago, on this day, Pakistan was dismembered. But this tragedy took years in the making. Tonight, we're joined by Muhammad Ziauddin, Wajahat Masood and Rubina Saigol to shed light on the disastrous policies that culminated into the Fall of Dhaka.
Nov 18, 2014 · Bangladesh 1971: A Forgotten Genocide ... to the joint command of Indian and Bangladesh Forces on 16 December, 1971. The joy of victory was overshadowed by the grief and pain of the gruesome ...
- The Significance of Dhaka
- Manoeuvre Style of Warfare
- Pakistan’s Strategy
- India’s Strategy
There were two centres of gravity of East Pakistan – the Pakistan army and its critical vulnerability — Dacca (now Dhaka). So long as the Pakistan army remained a cohesive fighting force, and held on to Dhaka, the political aim could not be achieved. The new nation state would lack legitimacy and international or American intervention remained a possibility. Our armed forces were not too sure of their capabilities as we had no experience of operations on this scale. The initial operational plan was a compromise. Dhaka was never formally defined as an objective. The directive given to the Eastern Command focused on capture of maximum territory, including the major towns and the port cities of Chittagong and Khulna, but shied away from declaring Dhaka as the military objective of the campaign. Also read: How I captured and saved India’s first prisoner of war in 1971
Culturally, our Army followed the attrition style of warfare, which relies on “force on force” to capture terrain objectives. This style literally seeks the enemy to attack. It was the influence of this culture that led us to consider that Dhaka was an “objective too far”. As per this approach, unless all other areas/towns, which were held by the enemy, were physically attacked and captured, we could not have reached Dhaka. The manoeuvre style of warfare, instead, focuses on ‘defeat’, which lies in the psychological realm. It is empirical wisdom that barring exceptions, ‘defeat’ is a state of mind, a factor of ‘will’. When the conditions are created to bring about a psychological collapse, the enemy accepts defeat even if s/he has adequate resources to continue the fight. Consequently, in this style, an all-out effort is made to threaten/capture/destroy the critical vulnerability of the enemy with sufficient residual combat potential. Only selected positions or ‘surfaces’ are attack...
Pakistan’s Eastern Command also faced a dilemma due to paucity of resources. It correctly identified that Dhaka had to be defended. It was desirable that it was held in strength. Yet the vast territory ahead of Dhaka could not be given up. The defensive strategy adopted by Pakistan Army was a compromise. Cantonments and major towns were to be developed as fortresses guarding the approaches to Dhaka. These fortresses were to push forward light forces right up to the international boundary (IB) to deny loss of territory. Depending upon the progress of the Indian offensive and the tactical situation, the formations were to conduct an orderly fighting withdrawal to wage a final battle around Dhaka.
The “default strategy” that was adopted by the maverick commanders and the staff officers was perfect to a fault and ended up being adopted by the Army Headquarters midway through the war. The political aim was to dismember Pakistan and create the new nation state of Bangladesh. The victory had to be absolute, leaving the international community with no option but to recognise the new state. The operational strategy was to launch a land, air and sea campaign on multiple thrust lines from the west with 2 Corps, northwest with 33 Corps, north with 101 Communication Zone, east with 4 Corps and south with the Indian Navy. The aim was to threaten/capture the geostrategic and geopolitical centre of gravity – Dhaka – to bring about the psychological collapse of Pakistan’s Eastern Command, and in so doing establish tactical control over the entire territory of East Pakistan. The preliminary operations, conducted all along the IB in November, “sucked” the enemy forces forward from Dhaka and...
Dec 17, 2019 · The war in former East Pakistan ended on 16 December 1971. On 28 February 1973, Bangladesh Government issued a Presidential Order No. 16 of 1973 which was called “ BANGLADESH NATIONAL LIBERATION STRUGGLE (INDEMNITY) ORDER 1973 “. In this order, general indemnity was granted to all Bengali perpetrators who committed crimes leading up to the ...
Mar 19, 2019 · A chronology of 1971 and 35 directives. Like most countries, independence did not come easy for Bangladesh. Between March and December, a lot of bloodshed and misery had resulted from the war but on December 1971, a new country was born in the name of Bangladesh. Our flag stands for freedom and we are so very proud, when it waves in the breeze ...
This scene was repeated across Bangladesh weeks after 16 December 1971, in which minority communities like Biharis, Chakma Buddhists and even a small Punjabi community in Dhaka, were brutally murdered. Mature nations should be able to question their own history, and accept interpretations which may differ from the one they were led to believe.
He met Z.A. Bhutto on 28 December 1970 and the following day a proclamation was issued that the first session of National Assembly would be held at Dhaka. Gen Yahya visited Dhaka on January 12, 1971 met Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and on his return to Karachi he said that Sheikh Mujibur Rahman would be the next Premier.
Archives news reports, opinions, editorials published in different media outlets from around the world on 1971, International Crimes Tribunal and the justice process. Archive II: ICT Documentation For the sake of ICT’s legacy this documentation project archives, and preserves proceeding-documents, e.g., judgments, orders, petitions, timelines.