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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 16311631 - Wikipedia

    1631 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1631st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 631st year of the 2nd millennium, the 31st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1630s decade.

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1631_in_art1631 in art - Wikipedia

    Births. March 3 - Esaias Boursse, Dutch painter of genre works (died 1672) April - Cornelis de Heem, still-life painter associated with both Flemish Baroque and Dutch Golden Age painting (died 1695) November 28 - Abraham Brueghel, Flemish painter from the famous Brueghel family of artists (died 1690) date unknown.

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  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1631_Kopff1631 Kopff - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Classification and orbit
    • Physical characteristics
    • Naming

    1631 Kopff, provisional designation 1936 UC, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 11 October 1936, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at Turku Observatory in Southwest Finland. It was later named after German astronomer August Kopff.

    Kopff is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest collisional families of stony S-type asteroid. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 4 months. Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.21 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic. First identified as 1926 TH at Heidelberg in 1926, the body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Turku in 1936.

    In November 2003, a rotational lightcurve of Kopff was obtained from remote photometric observations at the Tenagra and Tenagra II Observatories. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 6.683 hours with a brightness variation of 0.41 magnitude.

    According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Kopff measures between 8.64 and 9.66 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an a

    This minor planet was named for German astronomer August Kopff. He was first an assistant to Max Wolf, and became later a prolific discoverer of minor planets himself. In 1924, Kopff became Director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Berlin, and, after the western section moved to Heidelberg, he also became director of the Heidelberg Observatory. Under his leadership, the third Catalogue of Fundamental Stars was compiled and the work on the fourth catalogue was initiated. The lunar crater

    • Turku Obs.
    • 3.34 yr (1,220 days)
    • Overview
    • Measure design
    • Background
    • Support
    • Opposition

    The Washington Carbon Emissions Fee and Revenue Allocation Initiative, also known as Initiative 1631 or the Protect Washington Act was a ballot initiative that appeared on ballots in the State of Washington in the November 2018 election. The initiative proposed to reduce pollution by levying a fee on greenhouse gas emissions generated within the state of Washington, and using that revenue to support air quality and energy projects, as well as water quality and forest health initiatives. The meas

    The measure stated that, beginning on January 1, 2020, a fee of $15 would be enacted on each metric ton of carbon emitted in the state of Washington. The fee would increase by $2 every year until the state's greenhouse gas emissions target for 2035 is met, and the state's emissions target for 2050 is on track to be met. These goals had previously been set by the Washington State Legislature, which passed a law in 2008 that required the state to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, 25% be

    Environmental advocates in Washington had previously attempted to pass carbon pricing measures. Washington Initiative 732, a "tax swap" proposal to levy a tax on carbon emissions and simultaneously reduce the state's sales tax, had appeared on the ballot in the 2016 election, but failed to pass. Initiative 1631 differed in that it proposed to use revenue from carbon fees to invest in projects to reduce pollution. These include projects related to transportation, energy efficiency, carbon sequest

    The initiative was drafted by a broad coalition of labor, faith, social justice, health, tribal, and environmental justice groups, such as Front and Centered, a coalition of people of color and low-income people advocating for a just transition. It was also supported by Carbon Washington, the organization that had put Initiative 732 on the ballot. Other organizations that supported the initiative included Stand.earth, The Nature Conservancy, and local chapters of 350.org and the Sierra Club. Ele

    The "No on 1631" campaign was sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. The American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers and its members spent over $30 million to defeat the measure. Companies that funded the campaign against the initiative included Cascade Natural Gas, BP, Royal Dutch Shell, Chevron, and Phillips 66. Atmospheric sciences professor Cliff Mass opposed the initiative. Others opposed the measure because section 9 specifically exempted "Fossil fuels directly or eventua

    • Overview
    • Background
    • Negotiations
    • Terms
    • Aftermath

    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed on 30 May 1631 during the Thirty Years' War, at the Palace of Fontainebleau. It was a pact of mutual assistance between Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and France, for a period of eight years. The treaty provides an example of the complex relationships between the various participants. In it, France agreed to protect Maximilian from Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, also a French ally and opponent of Emperor Ferdinand, Maximilian's overlord. Attempts to keep i

    From around 1520 to 1750, European politics was dominated by the rivalry between France and the Habsburgs, rulers of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. During the 1620s, France was divided by renewed religious wars and Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister from 1624 to 1642, avoided open conflict with the Habsburgs. Instead, he financed their opponents, including the Dutch, the Ottomans, and Danish intervention in the Thirty Years' War. Map of the Holy Roman Empire, 1648 Richelieu also tried to creat

    In the January 1631 Franco-Swedish Treaty of Bärwalde, Richelieu agreed to fund Swedish military intervention for five years. In return, Gustavus promised to respect the neutrality of Bavaria and the lands of the Catholic League, but only so long as they did the same. The terms were so poorly drafted that as Richelieu himself pointed out, the presence of Bavarian officers in the Imperial army technically violated Maximilian's neutrality. Richelieu relied on his ability to restrain the ...

    Clauses One and Two set the period of the agreement as eight years, with each party providing the other military assistance, if their 'inherited or acquired' territories were attacked, which essentially confirmed Bavarian possession of the Palatinate. French assistance was set at 9,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry, or the financial equivalent, for Bavaria, 3,000 and 1,000 respectively. In Clauses Three and Four, they further undertook not to support attacks on either by another party. Clause Five

    On 20 May, ten days before the treaty was signed, forces of the Catholic League, sacked the Protestant town of Magdeburg; over 20,000 were alleged to have died in the most serious atrocity of the entire war. At an Imperial conference held in August, Catholic hardliners succeeded in blocking concessions on the Edict; the combination meant Saxony allied with Gustavus and their combined army won an overwhelming victory over the League at Breitenfeld in September. This dramatically changed the balan

    • Overview
    • Preliminaries
    • Tactical overview
    • Disposition of forces
    • Battle
    • Aftermath

    The Battle of Breitenfeld or First Battle of Breitenfeld, was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on 17 September, or 7 September, 1631. It was the Protestants' first major victory of the Thirty Years War. The victory confirmed Sweden's Gustavus Adolphus of the House of Vasa as a great tactical leader and induced many Protestant German states to ally with Sweden against the German Catholic League, led by Maximilian I, Elector of Bav

    The Swedish phase of the Thirty Years War began when Gustavus Adolphus and his force of 13,000 landed at Peenemünde in 1630. Initially, Sweden's entrance into the war was considered a minor annoyance to the Catholic League and its allies; his only battles to this point had been inconclusive ones, or fought against generals of modest military ability. Consequently, the Imperial Commander of the German Catholic League, Tilly, did not immediately respond to the arrival of the Swedes, being engaged

    The battle was overall a meeting engagement with both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. The forces all had different structural organization. The level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. Both armies were well supplied, and the terrain gave neither a distinct advantage.

    The Swedes deployed their 15,000 infantry in brigades and two lines. The imperial army deployed 25,500 infantry in a single line of 17 tercios. The German allies extended the Swedish-Saxon front to be overall slightly longer than the Imperial. The imperial line had its cavalry evenly distributed on its flanks. The Swedes had their cavalry weighted to their right. The Saxon allies fielded their infantry in wedge formation with units in squares, and cavalry on their flanks. With their Saxon allies

    The battle started in the middle of the day and lasted over six hours. The first two hours consisted of an exchange of artillery fire. This was followed by an Imperial attack with cavalry from both wings to both ends of the Protestant line. The cavalry attack routed the Saxon troops on the Swedish left flank. The Imperial army then conducted a general attack to exploit the exposed left flank. The Swedes repositioned their second line to cover the left flank and counterattacked with their cavalry

    The outcome of the battle had a significant impact in both the short and long terms.

    • Decisive Protestant Swedish/Saxon victory
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