1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1811th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 811th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1810s decade.
January 8 – An unsuccessful slave revolt is led by Charles Deslandes in St. Charles and St. James, Louisiana. January 22 – The Casas Revolt begins in San Antonio, Texas. March 22 – The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for Manhattan is presented. July 9 – British explorer David Thompson posts a notice at the confluence of the Columbia and ...
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Monarch – George IIIRegent – George, Prince Regent(starting 5 February)Prime Minister – Spencer Perceval (Tory)Parliament – 4th1 February – Bell Rock Lighthouse begins operation off the coast of Scotland.5 February – George, Prince of Wales becomes Regent under terms of the Regency Act because of the perceived insanity of his father, King George III. He is known as the Prince Regent and this is the...21 February – the John and Jane, carrying troops bound for the Peninsular War, is accidentally run down and sunk by HMS Franchise off Lizard Point, Cornwallwith the loss of a majority of the 300 on...22 February – editor Leigh Hunt and his publisher brother John, defended by Henry Brougham, are cleared of seditious libel over a September 1810 article in their newspaper, The Examiner, criticisin...Jane Austen's novel Sense and Sensibility('by a lady').Francis Place's Illustrations and Proofs of the Principles of Population, including an examination of the proposed remedies of Mr. Malthus, and a reply to the objections of Mr. Godwin and others, t...9 January – Gilbert Abbott à Beckett, writer (died 1856)1 February – Arthur Hallam, poet (died 1833)6 February – Henry Liddell, academic and cleric (died 1898)24 February – Edward Dickinson Baker, United States Senator from Oregon from 1860 (died 1861 in the United States)9 February – Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal (born 1732)24 February – James Brudenell, 5th Earl of Cardigan, politician (born 1715)14 March – Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, Prime Minister of Great Britain(born 1735)5 May – Robert Mylne, architect (born 1734)
1811. 1811 (MDCCCXI) a fost un an obișnuit al calendarului gregorian, care a început într-o zi de marți .
- History of The Gridiron
- History of New York City
- The Commissioners' Plan
- Modifications and Extensions
- External Links
The gridiron layout of a town or city is not new. It is, in fact, "the most pervasive city design on earth" and can be found in "Italy and Greece, in Mexico, Central America, Mesopotamia, China [and] Japan." It can be found in the Old and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, and in Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley in 2154 BCE with a population of 40,000 people, where many historians claim it was invented, and from where it may have spread to Ancient Greece. The Greek city of Miletus was rebuilt after destruction by the Persians on a grid plan, with Hippodamus – often called "the father of European urban planning" – as the local originator of the rectilinear grid system for the city centered on the agora, a concept he probably did not invent, but had heard about from elsewhere. Hippodamus went on to spread the grid to Piraeus, Rhodes, and other cities in Greece. The grid plan, or "Hippodamian plan", was also utilized by the Ancient Romans for their fortified military encampments, or castra...
The streets of lower Manhattan had, for the most part, developed organically as the colony of New Amsterdam – which became New York when the British took it over from the Dutch without firing a shot in 1664 – grew. The roads were a mixture of country lanes, short streets and Native American and animal trails, all shaped by haphazard history, happenstance and property ownership without any overarching order, until around 1800 when the Common Council of New Yorkbegan to assert authority over the streetscape, promulgating regulations to keep them clear and to require new streets be approved in advance. They also began to lay assessments on property owners to pay for the cost of keeping the streets in repair. Beginning in 1803, the Council started to condemn streets which served no public purpose, and, importantly, took responsibility for building streets, which heretofore had been done by individual property owners.
Politics may have caused the Common Council to officially decertify Mangin's plan for the future expansion of the city, but the episode nonetheless was a step forward in the development of the city's future. In the "warning label" the Council caused to have placed on copies of Mangin's map was the statement that expansion of the city, such as shown on the map, was "subject to such future arrangements as the Corporation may deem best calculated to promote the health, introduce regularity, and...
The format chosen by the Commissioners was a rectilinear grid, or "gridiron": straight streets and avenues intersecting each other at right angles. Legal historian Hendrick Hartog writes that their choice was resonant with the political values of the country, which only recently gained independence from Great Britain. According to Hartog, the grid was: "...the antithesis of a utopian or futuristic plan." It extolled ordinary everyday life, and emphasized that "government ought not to act in s...
By 1865, Andrew Haswell Greenreported, there had been 38 separate state laws passed which modified the original grid of 1811.
The plan was also vociferously criticized from the start, not least because it did not take into account the natural topography of the island, but also because it took no notice of classical ideas about beauty, and was monotonous in its regularity. It was also lambasted for being made in service of monetary interests alone. Among the many critics of the plan were Edgar Allan Poe and Alexis de Tocqueville who believed that it fostered "relentless monotony". Walt Whitman, the poet and editor of...
From its inception, there have been those who sang the praises of the Commissioners' gridiron plan. Writing in 1986, urban analyst David Schuyler said that "In 1811 the gridiron had been so widely accepted as the optimal street arrangement for a commercial city that the plan received only perfunctory treatment in the press – even though it had a dramatic effect on existing property lines." The Citizens and Strangers Guide of 1814 said "The whole island has been surveyed and framed into extens...
Informational notes Citations Bibliography 1. Augustyn, Robert T. & Cohen, Paul E. (1997). Manhattan in Maps: 1527-1995. New York: Rizzoli International Press. ISBN 0847820521. 2. Ballon, Hilary, ed. (2013). The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan 1811-2011. New York: Museum of the City of New York and Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-15990-6. 3. Burrows, Edwin G. and Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-195-11634-8. 4. Eldredge, Niles and Horenstein, Sidney (2014). Concrete Jungle: New York City and Our Last Best Hope for a Sustainable Future. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-27015-2.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link) 5. Higgins, Hannah B. (2009) The Grid Book, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-51240-4 6. Holloway, Marguerite (2013). The Measure of Manhattan: The Tumultuous Career and Surprising Legacy of John Randel Jr., Cartographer,...The Commissioners' report of 1807, with a modern introduction and a map from 1811"Map of the city of New York and island of Manhattan as laid out by the commissioners appointed by the Legislature, April 3, 1807" New York Public LibraryDigital Collections (zoomable map)