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  1. Human history - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_the_world

    6 days ago · At around the same time, a powerful thalassocracy appeared in Eastern Polynesia, centered around the Society Islands, specifically on the sacred Taputapuatea marae, which drew in Eastern Polynesian colonists from places as far away as Hawaii, New Zealand , and the Tuamotu Islands for political, spiritual and economic reasons, until the unexplained collapse of regular long-distance voyaging in the Eastern Pacific a few centuries before Europeans began exploring the area.

  2. History of HIV/AIDS - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_HIV

    Jun 13, 2021 · After the mid-1930s, people's movements were more tightly controlled, and mass surveys and treatments (of arsenicals and other drugs) were organized, and so the GUD incidences started to decline. They declined even further after World War II, because of the heavy use of antibiotics , so that, by the late 1950s, Léopoldville (which is the probable center of HIV-1 group M) had a very low GUD incidence.

  3. History of Bulgaria - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Bulgaria
    • Prehistory and Antiquity
    • Dark Ages
    • First Bulgarian Empire
    • Byzantine Rule
    • Second Bulgarian Empire
    • Bulgaria Under Ottoman Rule
    • People's Republic of Bulgaria
    • Republic of Bulgaria
    • See Also
    • Bibliography

    The earliest human remains found in Bulgaria were excavated in the Kozarnika cave, with an approximate age of 1,6 million BC. This cave probably keeps the earliest evidence of human symbolic behaviour ever found. A fragmented pair of human jaws, which are 44,000 years old, were found in Bacho Kiro cave, but it is disputed whether these early humans were in fact Homo sapiens or Neanderthals. The earliest dwellings in Bulgaria – the Stara Zagora Neolithic dwellings – date from 6,000 BC and are amongst the oldest man-made structures yet discovered. By the end of the neolithic, the Hamangia and Vinča culture developed on what is today Bulgaria, southern Romania and eastern Serbia. The earliest known town in Europe, Solnitsata, was located in present-day Bulgaria. The Durankulak lake settlement in Bulgariacommenced on a small island, approximately 7000 BC and around 4700/4600 BC the stone architecture was already in general use and became a characteristic phenomenon that was unique in Eu...

    The Slavs

    The Slavs emerged from their original homeland (most commonly thought to have been in Eastern Europe) in the early 6th century and spread to most of eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches - the West Slavs, the East Slavs and the South Slavs. The easternmost South Slavs settled on the territory of modern Bulgaria during the 6th century. Most of the Thracians were eventually Hellenized or Romanized, with the last remnants surviving in remote are...


    The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a semi-nomadic people of Turkic descent, originally from Central Asia, who from the 2nd century onwards dwelled in the steppes north of the Caucasus and around the banks of river Volga (then Itil). A branch of them gave rise to the First Bulgarian Empire. The Bulgars were governed by hereditary khans. There were several aristocratic families whose members, bearing military titles, formed a governing class. Bulgars were polytheistic, but chie...

    Old Great Bulgaria

    In 632, Khan Kubrat united the three largest Bulgar tribes: the Kutrigur, the Utugur and the Onogonduri, thus forming the country that now historians call Great Bulgaria (also known as Onoguria). This country was situated between the lower course of the Danube river to the west, the Black Sea and the Azov Sea to the south, the Kuban river to the east and the Donets river to the north. The capital was Phanagoria, on the Azov. In 635, Kubrat signed a peace treaty with emperor Heraclius of the B...

    During the late Roman Empire, several Roman provinces covered the territory that comprises present-day Bulgaria: Scythia (Scythia Minor), Moesia (Upper and Lower), Thrace, Macedonia (First and Second), Dacia (Coastal and Inner, both south of Danube), Dardania, Rhodope and Haemismontus, and had a mixed population of Byzantine Greeks, Thracians and Dacians, most of whom spoke either Greek or variants of Vulgar Latin. Several consecutive waves of Slavic migration throughout the 6th and the early 7th centuries led to a dramatic change of the demographics of the region and its almost complete Slavicisation. After the reign of Asparuh, his son and heir Tervel, becomes ruler. In the beginning of 8th century Byzantine emperor Justinian II asked Khan Tervel for assistance in recovering his throne, for which Tervel received the region Zagore from the Empire and was paid large quantities of gold. He also received the Byzantine title "Caesar". Years later, the emperor decided to betray and atta...

    No evidence remains of major resistance or any uprising of the Bulgarian population or nobility in the first decade after the establishment of Byzantine rule. Given the existence of such irreconcilable opponents to the Byzantines as Krakra, Nikulitsa, Dragash and others, such apparent passivity seems difficult to explain. Some historiansexplain this as a consequence of the concessions that Basil IIgranted the Bulgarian nobility to gain their allegiance. Basil II guaranteed the indivisibility of Bulgaria in its former geographic borders and did not officially abolish the local rule of the Bulgarian nobility, who became part of Byzantine aristocracy as archons or strategoi. Secondly, special charters (royal decrees) of Basil II recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid and set up its boundaries, securing the continuation of the diocesesalready existing under Samuil, their property and other privileges. After the death of Basil II the empire entered into a peri...

    Resurrected Bulgaria occupied the territory between the Black Sea, the Danube and Stara Planina, including a part of eastern Macedonia, Belgrade and the valley of the Morava. It also exercised control over Wallachia Tsar Kaloyan (1197–1207) entered a union with the Papacy, thereby securing the recognition of his title of "Rex" although he desired to be recognized as "Emperor" or "Tsar" of Bulgarians and Vlachs. He waged wars on the Byzantine Empire and (after 1204) on the Knights of the Fourth Crusade, conquering large parts of Thrace, the Rhodopes, Bohemia, and Moldovia as well as the whole of Macedonia. In the Battle of Adrianople in 1205, Kaloyan defeated the forces of the Latin Empire and thus limited its power from the very first year of its establishment. The power of the Hungarians and to some extent the Serbs prevented significant expansion to the west and north-west. Under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241), Bulgaria once again became a regional power, occupying Belgrade and Albania....

    In 1393, the Ottomans captured Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, after a three-month siege. In 1396, the Vidin Tsardom fell after the defeat of a Christian crusade at the Battle of Nicopolis. With this the Ottomans finally subjugated and occupied Bulgaria.A Polish-Hungarian crusade commanded by Władysław III of Poland set out to free Bulgaria and the Balkans in 1444, but the Turks emerged victorious at the battle of Varna. The new authorities dismantled Bulgarian institutions and merged the separate Bulgarian Church into the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople (although a small, autocephalous Bulgarian archbishopric of Ohrid survived until January 1767). Turkish authorities destroyed most of the medieval Bulgarian fortresses to prevent rebellions. Large towns and the areas where Ottoman power predominated remained severely depopulated until the 19th century.[page needed] The Ottomans did not normally require the Christians to become Muslims. Nevertheless, th...

    During this period the country was known as the "People's Republic of Bulgaria" (PRB) and was ruled by the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP). The BCP transformed itself in 1990, changing its name to "Bulgarian Socialist Party". Communist leader Dimitrov had been in exile, mostly in the Soviet Union, since 1923. Although Stalin executed many other exiles he was close to Dimitrov and gave him high positions. Dimitrov was arrested in Berlin and showed great courage during the Reichstag fire trial of 1933. Stalin made him head of the Comintern during the period of the Popular Front' After 1944 he was also close to the Yugoslav Communist leader Tito and believed that Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, as closely related South Slav peoples, should form a federation. This idea was not favoured by Stalin. There have long been suspicions that Dimitrov's sudden death in Moscow in July 1949 was not accidental, although this has never been proven. It coincided with Stalin's expulsion of Tito from the Comin...

    By the time the impact of Mikhail Gorbachev's reform program in the Soviet Union was felt in Bulgaria in the late 1980s, the Communists, like their leader, had grown too feeble to resist the demand for change for long. In November 1989 demonstrations on ecological issues were staged in Sofia and these soon broadened into a general campaign for political reform. The Communists reacted by deposing Zhivkov and replacing him by Petar Mladenov, but this gained them only a short respite. In February 1990 the Party voluntarily gave up its claim on power monopoly and in June 1990 the first free elections since 1931 were held, won by the Communist Party, ridden of its hardliner wing and renamed the Bulgarian Socialist Party. In July 1991 a new Constitutionwas adopted, in which the system of government was fixed as parliamentary republic with a directly elected President and a Prime Minister accountable to the legislature. Like the other post-Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Bulgaria foun...


    1. Chary, Frederick B. "Bulgaria (History)" in Richard Frucht, ed. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe(Garland, 2000) pp 91–113. 2. Chary, Frederick B. The History of Bulgaria (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations) (2011) excerpt and text search; complete text 3. Crampton, R.J. Bulgaria (Oxford History of Modern Europe) (1990) excerpt and text search; also complete text online 3.1. Crampton, R.J. A Concise History of Bulgaria (2005) excerpt and text search 4. Detrez, Raymond. Historical D...

    Pre 1939

    1. Black, Cyril E. The Establishment of Constitutional Government in Bulgaria(Princeton University Press, 1943) 2. Constant, Stephen. Foxy Ferdinand, 1861–1948: Tsar of Bulgaria(1979) 3. Forbes, Nevill. Balkans: A history of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey1915. 4. Hall, Richard C. Bulgaria's Road to the First World War.Columbia University Press, 1996. 5. Hall, Richard C. War in the Balkans: An Encyclopedic History from the Fall of the Ottoman Empire to the Breakup of Yugoslavia (201...


    1. Michael Bar-Zohar. Beyond Hitler's Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews 2. Alexenia Dimitrova. The Iron Fist: Inside the Bulgarian secret archives 3. Stephane Groueff. Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918–1943 4. Pundeff, Marin. "Bulgaria," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the 20th Century(Columbia University Press, 1992) pp 65–118 5. Tzvetan Todorov The Fragility of Goodness: Why Bulgaria's Jews Survived the Holocaust 6. Tzveta...

  4. History of Christianity - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_early_Christianity

    Jun 14, 2021 · The Medieval Inquisition was a series of inquisitions (Roman Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s).

  5. Portal:Japan - Wikipedia › wiki › Portal:Japan

    4 days ago · The coast is very rugged, with little in between the mountains and the sea. Of the several theories about the origin of the name ‘Iwate’, the most well known tale, 'Oni no tegata,' is that associated with Mitsuishi Shrine in Morioka. According to the legend, there was once a devil who often tormented and harassed the local people.

  6. Demographics of Greece - Wikipedia › wiki › Demographics_of_Greece

    4 days ago · During the history of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek peninsula was occasionally invaded by the foreign peoples like Goths, Avars, Slavs, Normans, Franks and other Romance-speaking peoples who had betrayed the Crusades. The only group, however, that planned to establish permanent settlements in the region were the Slavs.

  7. World History Portal | Britannica › browse › World-History

    Jun 18, 2021 · Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated... Encyclopedia / World History. Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar, celebrated qo general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce,... Biography.

  8. The Enduring Myths of 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' | Arts ... › arts-culture › enduring

    Jun 08, 2021 · Myth 1: Rugged, swashbuckling, fedora-wearing Indiana Jones is what most archaeologists are like. Raiders was set in the 1930s, “a time when 99 percent of archaeologists were white men,” says ...

  9. Is There Scientific Evidence for the Exodus? | Ancient Origins › human-origins-religions

    May 30, 2021 · Archaeologists from the University of Chicago dug up a mortuary temple in the 1930s. The mortuary temple was apparently created in the name of the last two pharaohs in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, Aya, and Horemheb.

  10. Historical Context of A Raisin in the Sun | Chicago Public ... › historical-context-of-a-raisin

    Jun 10, 2021 · 1930. Lorraine Vivian Hansberry is born in Chicago on May 19, the daughter of a prominent real estate broker and the niece of a Howard University professor of African history. 1930-36. The Hansberry family lives at 5330 S. Calumet Avenue on the South Side of Chicago. 1935. Hansberry begins school at Betsy Ross Elementary at 61st Street and Wabash Avenue.

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