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In the end, the journal found just eight serious errors, such as general misunderstandings of vital concepts: four from each site. It also discovered many factual errors, omissions or misleading statements: 162 in Wikipedia and 123 in Britannica, an average of 3.86 mistakes per article for Wikipedia and 2.92 for Britannica.
In 2005 the American journalist John L. Seigenthaler, Jr., discovered that his Wikipedia biography falsely identified him as a potential conspirator in the assassinations of both John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and that these malicious claims had survived Wikipedia ’s community policing for 132 days.
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- Historical Context
- Earliest editions
- A. and C. Black editions
- First American editions
- The Fifteenth Edition
- The Global Edition
- Development of Electronic Versions
- External Links
Encyclopedias of various types had been published since antiquity, beginning with the collected works of Aristotle and the Natural History of Pliny the Elder, the latter having 2493 articles in 37 books. Encyclopedias were published in Europe and China throughout the Middle Ages, such as the Satyricon of Martianus Minneus Felix Capella (early 5th century), the Speculum majus (Great Mirror) of Vincent of Beauvais (1250), and Encyclopedia septem tomis distincta (A Seven-Part Encyclopedia) by Johann Heinrich Alsted (1630). Most early encyclopedias did not include biographies of living people and were written in Latin, although some encyclopedias were translated into English, such as De proprietatibus rerum (On the properties of things) (1240) by Bartholomeus Anglicus. However, English-composed encyclopedias appeared in the 18th century, beginning with Lexicon technicum, or A Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences by John Harris (two volumes, published 1704 and 1710, respecti...
First edition, 1771
The Britannica was the idea of Colin Macfarquhar, a bookseller and printer, and Andrew Bell, an engraver, both of Edinburgh. They conceived of the Britannica as a conservative reaction to the French Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot (published 1751–1766), which was widely viewed as heretical. Ironically, the Encyclopédie had begun as a French translation of the popular English encyclopedia, Cyclopaedia published by Ephraim Chambers in 1728. Although later editions of Chambers' Cyclopaedia were st...
Second edition, 1783, Supplement 1784
After the success of the first edition, a more ambitious second edition was begun in 1776, with the addition of history and biography articles. Smellie declined to be editor, principally because he objected to the addition of biography. Macfarquhar took over the role himself, aided by pharmacist James Tytler, M.A., who was known as an able writer and willing to work for a very low wage. Macfarquhar and Bell rescued Tytler from the debtors' sanctuary at Holyrood Palace, and employed him for se...
Third edition, 1797
The third edition was published from 1788 to 1797 in 300 weekly numbers (1 shilling apiece); these numbers were collected and sold unbound in 30 parts (10 shilling, sixpence each), and finally in 1797 they were bound in 18 volumes with 14,579 pages and 542 plates, and given title pages dated 1797 for all volumes. Macfarquhar again edited this edition up to "Mysteries" but died in 1793 (aged 48) of "mental exhaustion"; his work was taken over by George Gleig, later Bishop Gleig of Brechin (con...
Seventh edition, 1842
The 7th edition was begun in 1827 and published from March 1830 to January 1842, although all volumes have title pages dated 1842. It was a new work, not a revision of earlier editions, although some articles from earlier editions and supplements are used. It was sold to subscribers in monthly "parts" of around 133 pages each, at 6 shilling per part, with 6 parts combined into 800 page volumes for 36 shillings. The promise was made in the beginning that there would be 20 volumes, making the t...
Eighth edition, 1860
The 8th edition was published from 1853 to 1860, with title pages for each volume dated the year that volume was printed. It contained 21 numbered volumes, with 17,957 pages and 402 plates. The index, published in 1861, was 239 pages, and was either bound alone as an unnumbered 22nd volume, or was bound together with volume I, the dissertations volume. Four of these dissertations were carried over from the 7th edition, and two were new to the 8th. The five included in volume 1 of the 8th (185...
Ninth edition, 1889
The landmark ninth edition, often called "the Scholar's Edition", was published from January 1875 to 1889 in 25 volumes, with volume 25 the index volume. Unlike the first two Black editions, there were no preliminary dissertations, the alphabetical listing beginning in volume 1. Up to 1880, the editor, and author of the Foreword, was Thomas Spencer Baynes—the first English-born editor after a series of Scots—and W. Robertson Smith afterwards. An intellectual prodigy who mastered advanced scie...
Tenth edition (supplement to the 9th), 1903
Again under the sponsorship of The Times of London, and with Adam & Charles Black in the UK, the new owners quickly produced an 11-volume supplement to the 9th edition; being 9 volumes of text, 25–33, a map volume, 34, which was 1 inch taller than the other volumes, and a new index, vol 35, also an inch taller than 25–33, which covered the first 33 volumes (the maps volume 34 had its own index). The editors were Hugh Chisholm, Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, Arthur T. Hadley and Franklin Henry...
Eleventh edition, 1910
The renowned eleventh edition of Encyclopædia Britannica was begun in 1903, and published in 1910–1911 in 28 volumes, with a one-volume Index. Edited by Hugh Chisholm in London and by Franklin Henry Hooper in New York, the 11th edition was the first to be published substantially at one time, instead of volume by volume. Its illustrious contributors are legion, including Baden Baden-Powell writing on kite-flying; Arthur Eddington on astronomy; Edmund Gosse on literature and Donald Tovey on mus...
Twelfth and thirteenth editions
The poor sales of the war years brought the Britannica to the brink of bankruptcy. The CEO of Sears Roebuck, philanthropist Julius Rosenwald, was devoted to the mission of the Britannica and bought its rights on 24 February 1920 from his friend Horace Everett Hooper for $1.25 million. In 1922, a 3-volume supplement to the eleventh edition was released that summarized the developments just before, during and after World War I; these three volumes, taken together with the eleventh edition of 19...
Despite the policy of continuous revision, the 14th edition of the Britannica gradually became outdated. Beginning in the early 1960s, the failings of the 14th edition began to be collated and published by physicist Harvey Einbinder, culminating in his highly critical 390-page book, The Myth of the Britannica (1964). Goaded into action, the Britannicabegan to work on a new edition, the current 15th. The 15th edition was produced over ten years at a cost of $32 million and released in 1974 in...
In 1985, the Britannica responded to reader requests by restoring the index as a two-volume set. The number of topics indexed by the Britannicahas fluctuated from 500,000 (1985, the same as in 1954) to 400,000 (1989,1991) to 700,000 in the 2007 print version. Presumably, this recent increase reflects the introduction of efficient electronic indexing, since the size of the encyclopedia has remained nearly constant at approximately 40 million words from 1954 to the present and far less than 40%...
Britannica Global Edition was printed in 2009. It contained 30 volumes and 18,251 pages, with 8,500 photographs, maps, flags, and illustrations in smaller "compact" volumes. It contained over 40,000 articles written by scholars from across the world, including Nobel Prize winners. Unlike the 15th edition, it did not contain Macro- and Micropedia sections, but ran A through Z as all editions up to the 14th had. It currently is out of print and sold out. The last printing was in 2011. The following is Britannica's description of the work:
In the 1980s, Microsoft approached Britannica to collaborate on a CD-ROM encyclopedia, but the offer was declined. Senior managers at Britannica were confident in their control of the market and that their healthy profits would continue. At this time complete sets of the encyclopedia were priced between $1,500 and $2,200, and the product was considered part of a luxury brand with an impeccable reputation handed down from generation to generation. The management did not believe that a CD-ROM could adequately compete or supplement their business. Microsoft responded by using content from Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia to create what is now known as Encarta. In 1981, the first digital version of the Britannica was created for the LexisNexisservice. In 1990, the Britannica's sales reached an all-time high of $650 million, but Encarta, released in 1993, soon became a software staple with almost every computer purchase and the Britannica's market share plummeted. Britannica counter...New York Timesarticle describing the Britannica's financial woes in 1995Complete hypertext of the Fourth edition at the Online Books Page
Our new Britannica Kids + Kids’ Encyclopedia Bundle starts with the ultimate, educator-approved homework helper for grades pre-K through high school: Britannica Kids. You also receive the beautiful, hardcover All New Kids’ Encyclopedia – 400+ fun-filled pages of fascinating facts the whole family will enjoy.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of ...
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. English 6 312 000+ articles 日本語 1 272 000+ 記事
- The Encyclopaedia Now
- Related Pages
- Further Reading
Many different people have owned the Britannica. They include Scottish publisher A & C Black, Horace Everett Hooper, Sears Roebuck and William Benton. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is owned by Jacqui Safra, a Swiss billionaire and actor. Information technology has become better and more electronic encyclopaedias such as Microsoft Encarta and Wikipedia have made people not want to buy encyclopaedias in print anymore. So that it still can survive, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. has kept on telling people that the Britannica is good and accurate, made the encyclopaedia cheaper, and made electronic versions on CD-ROM, DVD and the World Wide Web. Since the early 1930s, the company has also promoted spin-offreference works.
2007 print version
Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, and a two-book index. The Britannica's articles are found in the Micropædia and Macropædia, which contain 12 and 17 books, respectively, each book having about one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 detailed articles, which can be as short as 2 pages and as long as 310 pages, and having references and named writers. The 2007 Micropædia has about 65,000 articles, and about 97% contain less tha...Einbinder, Harvey (1964). The Myth of the Britannica. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-384-14050-9.Jacobs, Arnold Stephen, Jr. (2004). The Know-It-All: One Man's Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-5062-7.Kister, Kenneth F. (1994). Kister's Best Encyclopedias: A Comparative Guide to General and Specialized Encyclopedias (2nd ed. ed.). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. ISBN 978-0-89774-744-8. |edition= has ex...Kogan, Herman (1958). The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. LCCN 58-8379.
- Nobel Prizes
- New English Words and Terms
1. January 1 - Jeanna Giese comes home from the hospital, and officially becomes the first person to ever survive Rabieswithout an vaccination. 2. January 5 – Eris, the most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, is discovered by a team led by Michael E. Brown using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory. 3. January 7 – Crevalcore train crash in Italy: 17 dead and dozens injured. 4. January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral with the pur...
1. 9 February – Proposal of the Keystone Pipeline. 2. February 10 – North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weaponsas a protection against the hostility it says it perceives from the United States. 3. February 14 3.1. Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri is assassinated, along with 21 others, by a suicide bomber in Beirut. 3.2. The online video hosting service website, YouTubelaunched. 4. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocolofficially goes into effect.
1. March 14 – China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwanfrom declaring independence. 2. March 24 – The President of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev, is deposed following mass anti-government demonstrationsand flees the country. 3. March 26 - The first episode of the revived series of Doctor Who airs on BBC One. 4. March 28 – The 8.6 Mw Nias–Simeulue earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI (Strong), leaving 915–1,314 people dead and 340–1,146 i...January 4 – Dafne Keen, British and Spanish actressJanuary 11 – Roksana Węgiel, Polish singer, winner of Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018February 10 – Rio Suzuki, Japanese actress and tarentoFebruary 21 – Hong Hwa-ri, South Korean actress
1. January 1 1.1. Shirley Chisholm, American politician, educator, and author (b. 1924) 1.2. Eugene J. Martin, American artist (b. 1938) 2. January 2 2.1. Arnold Denker, American chess player (b. 1914) 2.2. Maclyn McCarty, American geneticist (b. 1911) 3. January 3 – Will Eisner, American cartoonist, writer, and entrepreneur (b. 1917) 4. January 4 – Humphrey Carpenter, English biographer, writer, and radio broadcaster (b. 1946) 5. January 7 – Rosemary Kennedy, American socialite (b. 1918) 6....
1. February 1 – John Vernon, Canadian actor (b. 1932) 2. February 2 – Max Schmeling, German boxer (b. 1905) 3. February 3 3.1. Ernst Mayr, German-American biologist (b. 1904) 3.2. Zurab Zhvania, 4th Prime Minister of Georgia (b. 1963) 4. February 4 – Ossie Davis, American actor, poet, playwright, author and civil rights activist (b. 1917) 5. February 5 – Gnassingbé Eyadéma, 3rd President of Togo (b. 1935) 6. February 7 – Atli Dam, 3-Time Prime Minister of Faroe Islands (b. 1932) 7. February 1...
1. March 3 – Rinus Michels, Dutch football player and coach (b. 1928) 2. March 6 2.1. Hans Bethe, German-American physicist (b. 1906) 2.2. Teresa Wright, American actress (b. 1918) 3. March 8 – Aslan Maskhadov, Chechen separatist leader, 3rd President of Ichkeria (b. 1951) 4. March 9 4.1. Chris LeDoux, American country music and rodeo star (b. 1948) 4.2. István Nyers, Hungarian footballer (b. 1924) 5. March 10 – David Allen, Irish comedian (b. 1936) 6. March 14 – Akira Yoshizawa, Japanese art...Chemistry – Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, and Yves ChauvinEconomics – Robert J. Aumann, and Thomas SchellingLiterature – Harold PinterPeace – Mohamed ElBaradeididymofunctional calculusglampinglocavore
Encyclopædia Britannica - Encyclopædia Britannica - Britannica in the digital era: Technological changes, beginning in the 1980s with the development and spread of the personal computer and disc technology and quickening in the 1990s and 2000s through the Internet and widespread diffusion of broadband access, radically altered the publishing world generally and the encyclopaedia business in particular.
TAMPA, FLA.—December 15, 2005—The Wikimedia Foundation, an international non-profit organization dedicated to encouraging the growth, development and distribution of free, multilingual content, announced today the results of an independent investigation by Nature magazine of its free online encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
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