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  1. Stainless steel cycle. The stainless steel cycle starts with carbon steel scrap, primary metals, and slag. The next step is the production of hot-rolled and cold-finished steel products in steel mills. Some scrap is produced, which is directly reused in the melting shop. The manufacturing of components is the third step.

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    • 不锈钢的商业价值
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    不锈钢分为三大类:奥氏体不锈钢(A1,A2,A3,A4,A5)、铁素体不锈钢(F1)和马氏体不锈钢(C1,C4,C3)。 1. 奥氏体不锈钢含有16%-26%铬和35%以下的镍,通常具有最高的耐腐蚀性,不能通过热处理进行强化,并且无磁性;最常见的类型是18/8,或称304级,即含有18%铬和8%镍;典型的用途包括飞机工业、乳制品和食品加工工业。奥氏体不锈钢(A*-50较软/A*-70 适合冷加工/ A*-80具有高强度) 2. 标准的铁素体不锈钢含有10.5%-27%铬,而不含镍,由于碳含量低(0.2%以下),不能通过热处理进行强化,仅用于防腐蚀要求不高的场合,如建筑和汽车装潢方面。铁素体不锈钢(F1-45较软/F1-60适合冷加工) 3. 马氏体不锈钢通常含有11.5%-18%铬和1.2%以下的碳,有时也含镍,可通过热处理进行强化,具有中等的耐腐蚀性,用于刀具、外科用具、扳手和涡轮机。 不锈钢按其抗蚀性分:不锈钢(在空气中能抵抗腐蚀)和不锈耐酸钢(在某些化学介质中能抵抗腐蚀)。 按化学成分可分为高铬不锈钢(如4Cr13、Cr17、Cr28、Cr17Ti 等)、铬镍不锈钢(如0Cr18Ni9Ti、Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti)、铬锰氮不锈钢(如Cr17Mn13Mo2N)。

    不锈钢牌号分组

    SAE steel grade -(美國自動機工程學會總會(英语:SAE International)相關規範「Society of Automotive Engineers(英语:Society of Automotive Engineers)」) 1. 200系列:铬-镍-锰奥氏体不锈钢 2. 300系列:铬-镍奥氏体不锈钢 2.1. 型号301:延展性好,用于成型产品。也可通过机械加工使其迅速硬化。焊接性好。抗磨性和疲劳强度优于304不锈钢,產品如:彈簧、鋼構、車輪蓋。 2.2. 型号302:耐腐蚀性同304,由于含碳相对要高因而强度更好。 2.3. 304不鏽鋼餐具型号303:通过添加少量的硫、磷使其较304更易切削加工。 2.4. 型号304:通用型号;主要有18(鉻)/8(鎳)與18(鉻)/10(鎳)兩種不锈钢 。產品如:耐蝕容器、餐具、家俱、欄杆、醫療器材。標準成分是18 %鉻加8 %鎳。為無磁性、當雜質含量高時,加工後偶爾會呈現弱磁性、此弱磁性只能使用熱處理的方式消除。屬於無法藉由熱處理方法來改變其金相組織結構的不鏽鋼。 2.5. 型号304 L:與304相同特性...

    由於各種類型的不鏽鋼有不同的特性,在長期貼近人體使用,可能對人體產生有害的影響。長期使用不鏽鋼餐具可能對人體產生危害。 1. 2014年5月8日,有媒體報導稱,有一些台灣的專家出示久用不鏽鋼的湯匙強調,用久後有鏽、刮痕、凹凸不平則莫用,因為有溶出有害物的疑慮。消基會也補充說,雖然錳是人體必須的微量礦物質之一,但若吸收過量,會影響神經系統,引發記憶障礙,甚至是帕金森氏症;部份鎳化合物已被認定是人體致癌物。

    (英文)AISI钢牌号介绍[永久失效連結]
    (英文)Budd公司历史上著名的不锈钢应用者
    (英文)表面处理
    (英文)Articles About Stainless Steelby International Stainless Steel Forum
    (英文)What is stainless steelby BSSA
    (英文)Euro Inox(multilingual portal)
    (英文)Comprehensive Information About Stainless Steelby The Stainless Steel Information Center
    • Allmänt
    • Olika Typer Av Rostfritt Stål
    • Legeringsämnen
    • Korrosion
    • Rostfria Stål I Standarder
    • Externa länkar

    Rostfritt stål korroderar mycket långsammare än kolstål tack vare att det legerats med krom. När kromhalten överstiger cirka 11 % bildas en tunn, passiv hinna som skyddar det underliggande stålet mot vidare oxidation. Ytskiktet består av kromoxid som är bara 20-30 Å tjockt. Om stålets yta skadas, återbildas ytskiktet mycket snabbt förutsatt att det finns syre tillgängligt i omgivningen. Den kemiska motståndskraften i rostfritt stål ökar med stigande kromhalt, men den ökar även med minskande kolhalt, varför rostfria stål bör ha en kolhalt under 0,25 %. En allmänt förekommande missuppfattning om rostfritt stål är att det inte rostar överhuvudtaget men det gör det i många miljöer. Det finns rostfria stål som kallas rosttröga stål eftersom korrosionsfilmen (rosten) bildar ett närmast passivt skikt efter en viss nivå som bromsar vidare korrosion. Rostfritt stål uppfanns på Brown-Firth laboratioriet i Sheffield av Harry Brearley år 1912som under experiment med olika legeringar till kanonr...

    Det finns många olika typer av rostfria stål som framställs kommersiellt, alla med sina unika egenskaper och speciella användningsområden, men de kan delas in i mindre grupper av rostfria stål efter användningsområde och struktur.

    Stål kan legeras med många olika ämnen som ger stålet olika egenskaper. Nedan beskrivs de vanligaste.

    Även s.k. rostfria stål kan drabbas av korrosion beroende på den miljö de används i. Rostfria stål kan angripas på många sätt såsom allmän korrosion, bimetallkorrosion, interkristallin korrosion, gropfrätning, spaltkorrosion, spänningskorrosion och korrosionsutmattning. Vissa rostfria stål klarar av miljöer med saltvatten bättre tack vare en tillsats av lite molybden. En vanlig sammansättning av rostfritt stål för att motstå saltvatten är, förutom järn, 18 % krom, 10 % nickel och 2 % molybden. Gropfrätning (även kallat pitting) är ett lokalt korrosionsangrepp som sker i närvaro av oxidationsmedel med exempelvis klorider såsom saltvatten. Gropfrätning innebär att passivfilmen brister i en punkt varvid den angripna ytan blir anod och det omgivande stålet katod. Det innebär att oxidationen sker i punkten, d.v.s. metallen angrips i en punkt som gröps ur. Korrosionen görs möjlig dels genom komplexbildning mellan metalljoner och kloridjoner, dels genom att hydrolysenär sur vilket sänker p...

    I Sverige styrs standarder om legeringar, halter av legeringsämnen, benämningar med mera av Svenska institutet för standarder, SIS. ISO har två olika standarder eller EN-normer på benämningar, nämligen stålnamn och stålnummer. I Nordamerika finns två standarder som kallas ASTM/AISI respektive UNS som båda kontrolleras av ASTM International samt SAE International. Det finns många olika andra standarder i olika länder men dessa är vanligast i Sverige. Nedan finns en lista över relativt vanliga rostfria legeringar. SIS har flera publikationer angående rostfria stål: 1. SS-EN 10088-1:2005 "Rostfria stål - Del 1: Förteckning över rostfria stål" 2. SS-EN 10088-2:2005 "Rostfria stål - Del 2: Tekniska leveransbestämmelser för plåt och band av korrosionsbeständiga stål för allmänna ändamål" 3. SS-EN 10088-3:2005 "Rostfria stål - Del 3: Tekniska leveransbestämmelser för halvfabrikat, stång, valstråd, tråd, profiler och blanka produkter av korrosionsbeständiga stål för allmänna ändamål" 4. SS-...

  2. People also ask

    What is the highest grade of stainless steel?

    What are the different grades of stainless steel?

    What is stainless steel and how is it made?

    What are the uses of stainless steel?

    • Overview
    • Form of Supply
    • Corrosion Resistance
    • Related Specs & Trade Names

    Grade 321 stainless steel (1.4541) is a heat resistant grade supplied into numerous industry sectors. The key property of this grade is the added titanium content (5 x C%) stabilising the material and making its resistance to carbide precipitation when exposed to high temperatures and resistance to oxidation its main characteristics. Whilst retaining good strength and corrosion resistance when exposed to high temperatures, this grade of stainless steel like most austenitic grades will also maintain its strength and toughness at sub-zero temperatures, making this an excellent choice for various applications ranging from oil refinery equipment to automotive exhaust systems. This heat resistant grade of stainless steel has a maximum dry air service temperature of 850ºC.

    Nationwide Stainless are one of the UK’s largest independent Stockholders and Processors of 321 stainless steel (1.4541). With a large stock range and excellent processing capabilities we are able to supply most projects whether stock items or custom made products. We can offer; Stock size plate & sheet, Stock length round bar, Cut to size plate & sheet, Cut to length round bar, Cold forming of plate & sheet and round bar, And any other additional machining requirements that may be necessary. Please send any enquiries to sales@nationwidestainless.co.uk

    321 stainless steel (1.4541) has excellent corrosion resistance at normal temperatures but is primarily designed to perform at elevated temperatures. The added titanium content of minimum five times the carbon % content (max 0.7%) means that grade 321 also possesses good creep strength, good resistance to chromium carbide precipitation and is very resistant to oxidation and intergranular corrosion up to 850ºC in dry air service conditions. Other corrosive compounds in the hot atmosphere such as water and sulphur compounds will significantly reduce the maximum service temperature. The overall characteristics of this material make it an excellent, relatively low cost choice for many applications.

    1.4541, Grade 321, Alloy 321, AISI 321, TYPE 321, UNS S32100, X6CrNiTi18-10, ASTM A240, 321H, 321 Stainless, T.321, SS321, 321SS, 321

    • 200 and 300 Series
    • Heat Resisting Austenitic Stainless Steels
    • cipitation Hardening Grade En1.4980
    • See Also

    There are two subgroups of austenitic stainless steel. 300 series stainless steels achieve their austenitic structure primarily by a nickel addition while 200 series stainless steels substitute manganese and nitrogen for nickel, though there is still a small nickel content. 300 series stainless steels are the larger subgroup. The most common austenitic stainless steel and most common of all stainless steel is Type 304, also known as 18/8 or A2. Type 304 is extensively used in such items as, cookware, cutlery, and kitchen equipment. Type 316 is the next most common austenitic stainless steel. Some 300 series, such as Type 316, also contain some molybdenum to promote resistance to acids and increase resistance to localized attack (e.g. pitting and crevice corrosion). The higher nitrogen addition in 200 series gives them higher mechanical strength than 300 series. Alloy 20 (Carpenter 20) is an austenitic stainless steel possessing excellent resistance to hot sulfuric acid and many othe...

    Heat resisting grades can be used at elevated temperatures, usually above 600 °C. They must resist corrosion (usually oxidation) and retain mechanical properties, mostly strength (yield stress) and creepresistance Corrosion resistance is mostly provided by chromium, with additions of silicon and/or aluminium. Nickel does not resist well in sulphur containing environments. This is usually taken care of by adding more Si and Al which form very stable oxides. Rare earth elements such as cerium increase the stability of the oxide film. Type309 and 310, are utilized in high temperature applications greater than 800°C. Note: ferritic stainless steels do not retain strength at elevated temperatures and are not used when strength is required. Austenitic stainless steel can be tested by nondestructive testing using the dye penetrant inspection method but not the magnetic particle inspection method. Eddy-current testingmay also be used.

    Grade EN1.4980 (also known as A286) is not considered strictly as a heat resisting steel in standards, but this is popular grade for its combination of strength and corrosion resistance. It is used for service temperatures up to 700°C in applications such as: 1. aerospace (standardized in AMS5731, AMS5732, AMS5737 and AMS5525 standards), 2. industrial gas turbines, 3. automotive (turbo parts), etc.

  3. The structural steel was pre-ordered and pre-fabricated in anticipation of a revision to the city's building code that would have allowed the Empire State Building's structural steel to carry 18,000 pounds per square inch (120,000 kPa), up from 16,000 pounds per square inch (110,000 kPa), thus reducing the amount of steel needed for the building.

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