The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers. Before that the area was recorded nearly 2000 years ago as Germania, and in modern-day times Pomerania is split between Germany and Poland.
Alexandra (born at the end of 1360s or the beginning of 1370s in Vilnius – died on 20 April 1434 in Płońsk) was the youngest daughter of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas and his second wife Uliana of Tver. I In 1387 Alexandra married Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia.
Alexandra (Polish: Aleksandra, Lithuanian: Aleksandra; died 20 April 1434 in Płock) was the youngest daughter of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana of Tver. Though Alexandra's exact date of birth is not known, it is thought that she was born in the late 1360s or early 1370s.
Aleksandra Grigoryevna Samusenko (Russian: Александра Григорьевна Самусенко, Ukrainian: Олександра Григорівна Самусенко, Oleksandra Hryhorivna Samusenko; 1922 – 3 March 1945) was a Soviet T-34 tank commander and a liaison officer during World War II.
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Bogislav was the son of Bogislav VIII, Duke of Pomerania, and Sophia of Holstein. On 24 June 1432, in Poznan, he married Maria of Masovia, daughter of Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia and Alexandra of Lithuania. They had daughters, Sophia, who married Eric II, Duke of Pomerania, and Alexandra, and at least one of unknown name.
m (1451 after Feb) as his second wife, ERICH II Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast, son of WARTISLAW IX Duke of Pomerania & his wife Sophie von Sachsen-Lauenburg ([1418/25]-Wolgast 5 Jul 1474). (b) ALEXANDRA (-1451). Source - Project MedLands - http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POMERANIA.htm#BogislawVIIIdied1418. Weblinks. Wikipedia Bogislaw IX; Ruegenwalde
The House of Griffin or Griffin dynasty (German: Greifen; Polish: Gryfici) was a dynasty ruling the Duchy of Pomerania from the 12th century until 1637. The name "Griffins" was used by the dynasty after the 15th century and had been taken from the ducal coat of arms.
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On February 6, 1928, a woman calling herself Anastasia Tschaikovsky and claiming to be the youngest daughter of the murdered Russian czar Nicholas II arrives in New York City. She held a press conference on the liner Berengaria, explaining she was here to have her jaw reset. It was broken, she alleged, by a Bolshevik soldier during her narrow escape from the execution of her entire familythe Romanovsat Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1918. Tschaikovsky was welcomed to New York by Gleb Botkin, the son of the Romanov family doctor who was executed along with his patients in 1918. Botkin called her Your Highness and claimed that she was without a doubt the Grand Duchess Anastasia with whom he had played as a child.
Between 1918 and 1928, more than half a dozen other women had come forward claiming to be a lost heir to the Romanov fortune, so some American reporters were understandingly skeptical of Tschaikovskys claims. Nevertheless, she was treated as a celebrity during her stay in New York and occasioned society parties and fashionable hotels worthy of a Romanov heir. Registering for one hotel during her visit, she used the name Anna Anderson, which later became her permanent alias.
Just after midnight on July 17, 1918, Nicholas, Alexandra, their five children, and four family retainers, among them Dr. Botkin, were ordered to dress quickly and go down to the cellar of the house in which they were being held. There, the family and servants were arranged in two rowsfor a photograph, they were told, to quell rumors that they had escaped. Suddenly, nearly a dozen armed men burst into the room and shot the imperial family in a hail of gunfire. Those who were still breathing when the smoked cleared were stabbed to death.
The executioners then took the bodies to an abandoned mine shaft some 14 miles from Ekaterinburg, burned them in a gasoline-fueled bonfire, and doused the bones with sulfuric acid to further disguise the remains. Finally, what was left was thrown into the mine pit, which was covered with dirt. At first, the Bolshevik government reported that only Nicholas was executed and that his wife and children were moved to a safe location. Later, reports that the entire family had perished were confirmed by Russian investigators. At the same time, however, a persistent rumor spread through Europe, telling of a Romanov child, usually Anastasia, who had survived the carnage. Several pretenders came forward, hoping to cash in on the Romanov fortune reportedly held in European banks, but they were quickly exposed as frauds. Europe, however, had yet to meet Anna Anderson.
During the next few years, her entourage of Russian emigres grew, and she became particularly close to Gleb Botkin, who as the son of the slain Romanov family physician had spent considerable time with the imperial family in his childhood. During this time, numerous Romanov relatives and acquaintances interviewed her, and many were impressed by both her resemblance to Anastasia and her knowledge of the small details of the Romanovs family life. Others, however, left skeptical when she failed to remember important events of young Anastasias life. Her knowledge of English, French, and Russian, which the young Anastasia knew how to speak well, were also significantly lacking. Many blamed these inconsistencies on her reoccurring mental illness, which led to short stays in mental institutions on several occasions.
The Grand Duke of Hesse, Alexandras brother and Anastasias uncle, was a major critic of this effort, and he hired a private investigator to determine Anastasia Tschaikovskys true identity. The investigator announced that she was in fact Franziska Schanzkowska, a Polish-German factory worker from Pomerania who had disappeared in 1920. Schanzkowska had a history of mental instability and was injured in a factory explosion in 1916, which accounted for the scars. These findings were published in German newspapers but were not proved definitively. In 1991, Russian amateur investigators, using a recently released government report on the Romanov execution, found what they thought to be the Romanov burial site. Russian authorities took over and exhumed human remains. Scientists studied the skulls, claiming that Anastasias was among those found, but the Russian findings were not conclusive. To prove that the remains were indisputably those of the Romanovs, the Russians enlisted the aid of British DNA experts. First, the scientists tested for sex and identified five females and four males among the remains. Next they tested to see how, if at all, these people were related. A father and mother were identified, along with three daughters. The four other remains were likely those of servants. The son Alexei and one daughter were missing.
The woman who became known as Anna Anderson continued her fight for recognition, losing several court cases as the decades passed. A French play about her story, Anastasia, debuted in 1954, and in 1956 an American film version appeared, with Ingrid Bergman winning an Academy Award for her title role.
In 1968, Anne Anderson married an American history professor, J.E. Manahan, and moved to the United States, living her final years in Charlottesville, Virginia. In 1970, she lost her last major suit, and a remaining portion of the Romanov fortune was awarded to the duchess of Mecklenberg. Anna Anderson Manahan died in 1984.
To prove the identity of Alexandra and her children, the scientists took blood from Prince Philip, the consort of Queen Elizabeth II and the grand nephew of Alexandra. Because they all share a common maternal ancestor, they would all share mitochondria DNA, which is passed almost unchanged from mother to children. The comparison between the mtDNA in Philips blood and in the remains was positive, proving them to be the Romanovs. To prove the czars identity, who would not share this mtDNA, the remains of Grand Duke George, the brother of Nicholas, were exhumed. A comparison of their mtDNA proved their relation.
Later, the scientists compared Anna Andersons mtDNA with that of Karl Maucher, a great nephew of Franziska Schanzkowska. The DNA was a match, finally proving the theory put forth by a German investigator in the 1920s. One of the great mysteries of the 20th century was solved.
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On December 12, 1385, few months after the Union of Krewo, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, reached a compromise with Jadwiga of Poland and her intended consort king Jogaila, Alexandra's brother. Siemowit IV agreed to cease his rival claims to the Kingdom of Poland, pay homage to Jadwiga and Jogaila, and to assume position of a hereditary vassal to the Polish Crown in exchange for 10,000 Prague groschen and fief Duchy of Belz. The agreement was solidified by marriage of Siemowit IV and Alexandra in 1387. Alexandra died and was buried in Płock. Her final resting place is likely a church of the Dominican Order.
Karol Piotrowicz, w: Polski Słownik Biograficzny/ Polish Biographical Dictionary. T. 1. Kraków: Polska Akademia Umiejętności – Skład Główny w Księgarniach Gebethnera i Wolffa, 1935, p. 66–67Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Gediminas". Genealogy.EU. http://genealogy.euweb.cz/jagelo/jagelo.html.Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Piast". Genealogy.EU. http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast3.html#Z4.
History of Pomerania between 1933 and 1945 covers the period of one decade of the long history of Pomerania, lasting from the Adolf Hitler's rise to power until the end of World War II in Europe. In 1933, the German Province of Pomerania like all of Germany came under control of the Nazi regime .