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  1. Artaxerxes I - Wikipedia › wiki › Artaxerxes_I_of_Persia

    Artaxerxes was probably born in the reign of his grandfather Darius I, to the emperor's son and heir, Xerxes I. In 465 BC, Xerxes I was murdered by Hazarapat ("commander of thousand") Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in the Persian court, with the help of a eunuch, Aspamitres.

  2. Artaxerxes I - World History Encyclopedia › Artaxerxes_I
    • Background & Rise to Power
    • Themistocles & Conflict with Greece
    • The Egyptian & Megabyzus Revolt
    • Further Greek Conflict & Peace
    • Family, Buildings, & Biblical Narratives
    • Conclusion

    The Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus II (the Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE) who, among his many other notable achievements, allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem, ending the Babylonian Captivity (c. 605-536 BCE). He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II (r. 530-522 BCE) who conquered Egypt in 525 BCE and added it to the empire. Cambyses II died on his return trip and was briefly succeeded by a man who was either his brother Bardiya or an imposter named Gaumata who was killed and succeeded by Darius I. In response to Athenian support of a revolt of Ionian Greeks in his empire, Darius I launched in invasion of mainland Greece in 490 BCE which was halted at the famous Battle of Marathon. Xerxes I then amassed a large army and attempted to finish what his father had started by a second invasion in 480 BCE, which was defeated by 479 BCE. Xerxes I returned home and occupied himself with building projects, women, and court intrigue until he was assassinated by his trusted official Artab...

    Themistocles was the mastermind who had orchestrated Xerxes I's defeat at the naval battle of Salamis in 480 BCE and was initially hailed as a great hero by the Athenians. By c. 471 BCE, however, he had fallen out of favor and was first officially exiled via ostracism and then falsely accused of treason and ordered to stand trial. Themistocles first fled to Argos, then Molossia, and finally wound up in the Ionian Greek colonies of Asia Minorwhere he made his way to the court of Artaxerxes I and presented himself to the king. He told Artaxerxes I that, even though he had been his father's enemy in the war, he was now prepared, given his circumstances, to help the new king avenge the defeat and take Greece. Themistocles asked only for a year's time in which to learn the Persian language and customs and would then serve Artaxerxes I faithfully. The king granted him governorship of three cities(possibly more) and allowed his wife and children to be smuggled out of Athens and brought to...

    Artaxerxes I was most likely considering another course of action when he was distracted by troubles in his Egyptian province. The Libyan prince Inaros II – who had ties to the Egyptian Saite Dynasty and allied himself with Amyrtaeus of Sais – rose in revolt against the occupying Persians in Egypt. He was supported by Athens and the rebellion was so unexpected and well-orchestrated that it took the Persians by surprise. The Athenians had been planning to strike at Persian Cyprusin 460 BCE when Inaros II revolted and asked them for aid. Taking Egypt from Persia would be far more beneficial than the Cyprus possession and so Athens divided its forces between the war with Corinth and the rebels of Egypt. The conflict continued for six years, during which the general Megabyzus (d. c. 440 BCE, who had served under Xerxes I in the 480 BCE invasion of Greece) commanded the Persian land forces in concert with the Persian satrapof Egypt, Arshama, leading the Persian fleet. The war did not go...

    Around 450 BCE, while still fighting the First Peloponnesian War with Corinth, Athens renewed its earlier campaign to take Cyprus from Persia. The idea seemed to be to relaunch the revolt in Egypt by taking Cyprus as a staging area. A large fleet was launched, commanded by Cimon, which arrived at Cyprus and demanded its surrender. The island was well-fortified, however, and garrisoned with the troops of Megabyzus. Cimon attacked, even though the defenses were formidable, and was killed at Citium. The attack was abandoned and the fleet withdrew. The Athenians did not seem to recognize that they would have done better to concentrate their full attention on the war with Sparta's Peloponnesian League(their answer to Athens' Delian League) than dividing their forces with continuous attacks on Persian territory. Artaxerxes I, however, understood that something had to be done to keep Athens from interfering in his business and so sent an embassy to Athens, which included Megabyzus, offerin...

    While dealing with the Greeks, Egyptians, and other affairs of state, Artaxerxes I also, of course, had a domestic life. He was married to the queen Damaspia with whom he had one son, his heir Xerxes II (r. 424 BCE), but had many other children through his concubines including Sogdianus (r. 424 BCE) who briefly succeeded Xerxes II and the future queen Parysatis (5th century BCE) who would come to wield enormous power during and after the reign of Darius II (424-404 BCE). Artaxerxes I is described by the Greek historians as a gentle and studious man, given to reflection, but no mention is made of his home life other than the names of his various children. He favored the city of Susa and made a number of improvements to it. When the palace of Darius I was destroyed in a huge fire that swept the city, Artaxerxes I had it rebuilt, though on a smaller scale, along with many other buildings and temples. At Persepolis, he completed the impressive Hall of 100 Columns begun by his father and...

    Artaxerxes I died of natural causes in 424 BCE, having ensured a peaceful succession by naming Xerxes II his legitimate heir. Xerxes II reigned for only a little over a month, however, before he was assassinated by Sogdianus. Sogdianus had the support of a segment of the nobles and ruled for six months before he was assassinated by his half-brother Nochus (also given as Ochus) who took the throne name Darius II. Artaxerxes I's hopes of peaceful succession, therefore, were not realized, and Darius II, further, had to put down rebellions in various satrapies following his coup. Under Darius II's reign, the grandson of Amyrtaeus of Sais (who had led the revolt with Inaros II), also known as Amyrtaeus, founded the 28th Dynasty of Egypt and drove the Persians out of the Delta region of Lower Egypt, leaving them only Upper Egypt as a source of grain and other goods. The Peace of Callias only lasted until 412 BCE when Darius II broke the treaty by giving aid to Sparta during the Second Pel...

    • Joshua J. Mark
  3. ARTAXERXES I - › 1827-artaxerxes-i

    Artaxerxes was the second son of Xerxes, who was murdered in the summer of 465 by his all-powerful vizir Artaban. The murderer accused the king's eldest son Darius of the crime, with the result that Darius was slain by his younger brother Artaxerxes, who then mounted the throne. But Artaban sought the crown for himself, and therefore aimed at ...

  4. Artaxerxes I | king of Persia | Britannica › biography › Artaxerxes-I

    Artaxerxes I, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 465–425 bc). He was surnamed in Greek Macrocheir (“Longhand”) and in Latin Longimanus. A younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris, he was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes.

  5. ARTAXERXES I – Encyclopaedia Iranica › articles › artaxerxes-i

    Aug 15, 2011 · ARTAXERXES I, a son of Xerxes I and Amestris, whose name Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities 11.6.1.) gives as Cyrus, Persian king 465-64 to 424-23 B.C. Greek authors (first Plutarch, Artoxerxes 1.1) give him the surname “Longhanded, Long-armed” (Makrocheir, Latin Macrochir, Longimanus, New Persian Ardašīr-e derāzdast).

  6. Artaxerxes I, (r.464-425 BC) - › articles › people_artaxerxes_I

    Artaxerxes I (r.464-425 BC) was the Persian Emperor during the last stage of the Greco-Persian War and the first part of the Great Peloponnesian War, ending the first of those wars with the Peace of Callias, in which the Athenians acknowledged Persian authority in Asia Minor.

  7. Artaxerxes I - Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and ... › encyclopedias › eng

    surnamed LONGIMANUS (Gr. Μακρόχειρ , long-handed), from the circumstance that his right hand was longer than his left (Plutarch, Artax. 1), was king of Persia for forty years, B.C. 465-425 [strictly 466-425] (Diod. 11:69; 12:64; Thuc. 4:50). He ascended the throne after his father, Xerxes I, had been murdered by Artabanus, and after he ...

  8. Artaxerxes (c.-500 - -424) - Genealogy › people › Artaxerxes-I-King-of-Persia

    Jun 18, 2004 · Artaxerxes I (Greek Ἀρταξέρξης; corrupted from Old Persian Rtaxšaϑrā "whose rule is through truth" [1]) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 BC. He is the son of Xerxes I of Persia. He is also surnamed μακρόχειρ "Longimanus", allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left. [2]

    • Parysatis, Darius II
    • circa -500
    • Amestris, Xerxes I
    • Persia
  9. Who was Artaxerxes in the Bible? | › Artaxerxes-in-the-Bible

    Apr 26, 2021 · Artaxerxes was king of Persia from c. 464 to c. 425 BC. He was a son of King Xerxes (Ahasuerus) and is often referred to as Artaxerxes I Longimanus. Ezra and Nehemiah both traveled from Persia to Jerusalem from the court of Artaxerxes.

  10. Artaxerxes of Persia – Amazing Bible Timeline with World History › blog › artaxerxes-of-persia

    Nov 28, 2012 · Artaxerxes of Persia. Artaxerxes I of Persia was the fifth king of the Achaemenid Dynasty. His father was the former King Xerxes and he ruled the Persian Empire from 465 B.C. to 425 B.C. which is where he appears on the Biblical Timeline Chart. King Xerxes was murdered shortly before King Artaxerxes ascended the throne.

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