- Augustus (31 July 1526 – 11 February 1586) was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586. Augustus was born in Freiberg, the youngest child and third (but second surviving) son of Henry IV, Duke of Saxony, and Catherine of Mecklenburg. He consequently belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.
Lutheran (until 1697) Signature. Augustus II (12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733), most commonly known as Augustus the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in the years 1697–1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin .
- First Years
- Elector of Saxony
- Religious Policies
- Territorial Expansion
- Second Marriage and Death
- Writing and Collections
- External Links
Augustus was born in Freiberg, the youngest child and third (but second surviving) son of Henry IV, Duke of Saxony, and Catherine of Mecklenburg. He consequently belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin. Brought up as a Lutheran, he received a good education and studied at the university of Leipzig. When Duke Henry IV died in 1541, he decreed that his lands should be divided equally between his two sons; but as his bequest was contrary to the Albertine Law, it was not carried out, and the dukedom passed almost intact to his elder son, Maurice. Augustus, however, remained on friendly terms with his brother, and to further his policy spent some time at the court of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, in Vienna. In 1544, Maurice secured the appointment of his brother as administrator of the bishopric of Merseburg; but Augustus was very extravagant and was soon compelled to return to the Saxon court at Dresden. Augustus supported his brother during the war of the Schmalkaldi...
The first care of the new elector was to come to terms with John Frederick, and to strengthen his own hold upon the electoral position. This object was secured by a treaty made at Naumburg in February 1554, when, in return for the grant of Altenburg and other lands, John Frederick recognized Augustus as elector of Saxony. The elector, however, was continually haunted by the fear that the Ernestines would attempt to deprive him of the coveted dignity, and his policy both in Saxony and the wider Holy Roman Empire was coloured by this fear. In imperial politics Augustus acted upon two main principles: to cultivate the friendship of the Habsburgs, and to maintain peace between the contending religious parties. To this policy may be traced his share in bringing about the religious Peace of Augsburg treaty in 1555, his tortuous conduct at the diet of Augsburg eleven years later, and his reluctance to break entirely with the Calvinists. His policy of religious peace was also promoted by th...
The hostility between the Albertines and the Ernestines gave Augustus serious trouble. A preacher named Matthias Flacius held an influential position in ducal Saxony, and taught a form of Lutheranism different from that taught in the Electorate of Saxony. This breach was widened when Flacius began to make personal attacks on Augustus, to prophesy his speedy downfall, and to incite Duke John Frederick to make an effort to recover his rightful position. Associated with Flacius was a knight, Wilhelm von Grumbach, who, not satisfied with words only, made inroads into the Electorate of Saxony and sought the aid of foreign powers in his plan to depose Augustus. After some delay Grumbach and his protector, John Frederick, were placed under the imperial ban, and Augustus was entrusted with its execution. His campaign in 1567 was short and successful. John Frederick surrendered, and passed his time in prison until his death in 1595; Grumbach was taken and executed; and the position of the el...
Much of the elector's time was devoted to extending his territories. In 1573 he became guardian to the two sons of John William, duke of Saxe-Weimar, and in this capacity was able to add part of the county of Henneberg to the Electorate of Saxony. His command of money enabled him to take advantage of the poverty of his neighbours, and in this way he secured Vogtland and the county of Mansfeld. In 1555 he had appointed one of his nominees to the bishopric of Meissen, in 1561 he had secured the election of his son Alexander as bishop of Merseburg, and three years later as bishop of Naumburg; and when this prince died in 1565 these bishoprics came under the direct rule of Augustus.
On 1 October 1585 the Electress Anna died. Three months later, on 3 January 1586, in the city of Dessau, Augustus married secondly with Agnes Hedwig, a daughter of Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt. The bride was only 13 years; the groom, almost 60. August died one month after his new marriage, and was buried at Freiberg Cathedral. His only surviving son, Christian I, was his successor.
Augustus wrote a small work on agriculture entitled Künstlich Obstund Gartenbüchlein. He was famous for his various museum collections, including the finest collection of arms and weapons in Northern Europe, paintings, and an extensive collection of tools. In 1560 he founded the Dresden Kunstkammer, the predecessor of the present day State Collections. One of his possessions, a clockwork automaton called the Mechanical Galleon is now in the British Museum. This table decoration played music, told the time and showed Augustus and the other six electors parading before the Roman Emperor.This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Augustus I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.C. W. Böttiger and T. Flathe, Geschichte Sachsens, Band ii. (Gotha, 1870)M. Ritter, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Gegenreformation, Band i. (Stuttgart, 1890)R. Calinich, Kampf und Untergang des Melanchthonismus in Kursachsen(Leipzig, 1866)Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz (1975). "August, Kurfürst von Sachsen". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 1. Hamm: Bautz. col. 268. ISBN 3-88309...(German) Biography from the Institut für Sächsische Geschichte und Volkskunde e.V.(German) Biography(English) The Wire-drawing Bench of Elector Augustus of Saxony: Machine-tool and Work of Art
Augustus, (born July 31, 1526, Freiberg, Saxony—died February 12, 1586, Dresden, Saxony), elector of Saxony and leader of Protestant Germany who, by reconciling his fellow Lutherans with the Roman Catholic Habsburg Holy Roman emperors, helped bring the initial belligerency of the Reformation in Germany to an end.
Augustus, Elector of Saxony ( 31 of July of 1526 – 11 of February of 1586) was ruler of Saxony of 1553 the 1586. Family. Augustus was the youngest son of Duke Henry IV of Saxony and his wife, Duchess Catherine of Mecklenburg. Among his brothers was the elector-elector Maurice of Saxony.
reigned as Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 as Frederick Augustus III and as King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827. He also served as Duke of Warsaw from until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II German: Friedrich August Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony 1670 1733 better known as King Frederick August ...
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Augustus III, also called Augustus Frederick, Polish August III Wettin, German August Friedrich, (born Oct. 17, 1696, Dresden, Saxony [Germany]—died Oct. 5, 1763, Dresden), king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus II), whose reign witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder within Poland.