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  1. Avicenna - Wikipedia › wiki › Avicenna

    Avicenna was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan ), the capital of the Samanids, a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan. His mother, named Sitāra, was from Bukhara. While, according to most scholars, most of Avicenna's family were Sunnis, his father, Abdullāh, was a respected scholar from ...

    • Philosophy
    • Influence
    • Purpose
    • Early life
    • Writings
    • Properties
    • Criticisms
    • Significance

    Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name Avicenna. He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era. Born in Afshana near Bukhara in Central Asia in about 980, he is best known as a polymath, as a physician whose major work the Canon (al-Qanun fil-Tibb) continued to be taught as a medical textbook in Europe and in the Islamic world until the early modern period, and as a philosopher whose major summa the Cure (al-Shifa) had a decisive impact upon European scholasticism and especially upon Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274). Primarily a metaphysical philosopher of being who was concerned with understanding the selfs existence in this world in relation to its contingency, Ibn Sinas philosophy is an attempt to construct a coherent and comprehensive system that accords with the religious exigencies of Muslim culture. As such, he may be considered to be the first major Islamic philosopher. The philosophical space that he articulates for God as the Necessary Existence lays the foundation for his theories of the soul, intellect and cosmos. Furthermore, he articulated a development in the philosophical enterprise in classical Islam away from the apologetic concerns for establishing the relationship between religion and philosophy towards an attempt to make philosophical sense of key religious doctrines and even analyse and interpret the Quran. Late 20th century studies have attempted to locate him within the Aristotelian and Neoplatonic traditions. His relationship with the latter is ambivalent: although accepting some keys aspects such as an emanationist cosmology, he rejected Neoplatonic epistemology and the theory of the pre-existent soul. However, his metaphysics owes much to the \\"Amonnian\\" synthesis of the later commentators on Aristotle and discussions in legal theory and kalam on meaning, signification and being. Apart from philosophy, Avicennas other contributions lie in the fields of medicine, the natural sciences, musical theory, and mathematics. In the Islamic sciences ('ulum), he wrote a series of short commentaries on selected Quranic verses and chapters that reveal a trained philosophers hermeneutical method and attempt to come to terms with revelation. He also wrote some literary allegories about whose philosophical value 20th and 21st century scholarship is vehemently at odds. Logic is a critical aspect of, and propaedeutic to, Avicennan philosophy. His logical works follow the curriculum of late Neoplatonism and comprise nine books, beginning with his version of Porphyrys Isagoge followed by his understanding and modification of the Aristotelian Organon, which included the Poetics and the Rhetoric. On the age-old debate whether logic is an instrument of philosophy (Peripatetic view) or a part of philosophy (Stoic view), he argues that such a debate is futile and meaningless. His views on logic represent a significant metaphysical approach, and it could be argued generally that metaphysical concerns lead Avicennas arguments in a range of philosophical and non-philosophical subjects. For example, he argues in The Cure that both logic and metaphysics share a concern with the study of secondary intelligibles (maqulat thaniya), abstract concepts such as existence and time that are derived from primary concepts such as humanity and animality. Logic is the standard by which conceptsor the mental \\"existence\\" that corresponds to things that occur in extra-mental realitycan be judged and hence has both implications for what exists outside of the mind and how one may articulate those concepts through language. More importantly, logic is a key instrument and standard for judging the validity of arguments and hence acquiring knowledge. Salvation depends on the purity of the soul and in particular the intellect that is trained and perfected through knowledge. Of particular significance for later debates and refutations is his notion that knowledge depends on the inquiry of essential definitions (hadd) through syllogistic reasoning. The problem of course arises when one tries to make sense of an essential definition in a real, particular world, and when ones attempts to complete the syllogism by striking on the middle term is foiled because ones intuition fails to grasp the middle term. From al-Farabi, Avicenna inherited the Neoplatonic emanationist scheme of existence. Contrary to the classical Muslim theologians, he rejected creation ex nihilo and argued that cosmos has no beginning but is a natural logical product of the divine One. The super-abundant, pure Good that is the One cannot fail to produce an ordered and good cosmos that does not succeed him in time. The cosmos succeeds God merely in logical order and in existence. Consequently, Avicenna is well known as the author of one an important and influential proof for the existence of God. This proof is a good example of a philosophers intellect being deployed for a theological purpose, as was common in medieval philosophy. The argument runs as follows: There is existence, or rather our phenomenal experience of the world confirms that things exist, and that their existence is non-necessary because we notice that things come into existence and pass out of it. Contingent existence cannot arise unless it is made necessary by a cause. A causal chain in reality must culminate in one un-caused cause because one cannot posit an actual infinite regress of causes (a basic axiom of Aristotelian science). Therefore, the chain of contingent existents must culminate in and find its causal principle in a sole, self-subsistent existent that is Necessary. This, of course, is the same as the God of religion. Avicennas metaphysics is generally expressed in Aristotelian terms. The quest to understand being qua being subsumes the philosophical notion of God. Indeed, as we have seen divine existence is a cornerstone of his metaphysics. Divine existence bestows existence and hence meaning and value upon all that exists. Two questions that were current were resolved through his theory of existence. First, theologians such as al-Ashari and his followers were adamant in denying the possibility of secondary causality; for them, God was the sole agent and actor in all that unfolded. Avicennas metaphysics, although being highly deterministic because of his view of radical contingency, still insists of the importance of human and other secondary causality. Second, the age-old problem was discussed: if God is good, how can evil exist? Divine providence ensures that the world is the best of all possible worlds, arranged in the rational order that one would expect of a creator akin to the demiurge of the Timaeus. But while this does not deny the existence of evil in this world of generation and corruption, some universal evil does not exist because of the famous Neoplatonic definition of evil as the absence of good. Particular evils in this world are accidental consequences of good. Although this deals with the problem of natural evils, the problem of moral evils and particularly horrendous evils remains. The second most influential idea of Avicenna is his theory of the knowledge. The human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know. Knowledge is attained through empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts. It is developed through a syllogistic method of reasoning; observations lead to prepositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts. The intellect itself possesses levels of development from the material intellect (al-aql al-hayulani), that potentiality that can acquire knowledge to the active intellect (al-aql al-fail), the state of the human intellect at conjunction with the perfect source of knowledge. Was Avicenna a mystic? Some of his interpreters in Iran have answered in the positive, citing the lost work The Easterners that on the face of it has a superficial similarity to the notion of Ishraqi or Illuminationist, intuitive philosophy expounded by Suhrawardi (d. 1191) and the final section of Pointers that deal with the terminology of mysticism and Sufism. The question does not directly impinge on his philosophy so much since The Easterners is mostly non-extant. But it is an argument relating to ideology and the ways in which modern commentators and scholars wish to study Islamic philosophy as a purely rational form of inquiry or as a supra-rational method of understanding reality. Gutas has been most vehement in his denial of any mysticism in Avicenna. For him, Avicennism is rooted in the rationalism of the Aristotelian tradition. Intuition does not entail mystical disclosure but is a mental act of conjunction with the active intellect. The notion of intuition is located itself by Gutas in Aristotles Posterior Analytics 89b10-11. While some of the mystical commentators of Avicenna have relied upon his pseudo-epigraphy (such as some sort of Persian Sufi treatises and the Mirajnama), one ought not to throw the baby out with the bath water. The last sections of Pointers are significant evidence of Avicennas acceptance of some key epistemological possibilities that are present in mystical knowledge such as the possibility of non-discursive reason and simple knowledge. Although one can categorically deny that he was a Sufi (and indeed in his time the institutions of Sufism were not as established as they were a century later) and even raise questions about his adherence to some form of mysticism, it would be foolish to deny that he flirts with the possibilities of mystical knowledge in some of his later authentic works.

    His influence in medieval Europe spread through the translations of his works first undertaken in Spain. In the Islamic world, his impact was immediate and led to what Michot has called \\"la pandémie avicennienne.\\" When al-Ghazali led the theological attack upon the heresies of the philosophers, he singled out Avicenna, and a generation later when the Shahrastani gave an account of the doctrines of the philosophers of Islam, he relied upon the work of Avicenna, whose metaphysics he later attempted to refute in his Struggling against the Philosophers (Musariat al-falasifa). Avicennan metaphysics became the foundation for discussions of Islamic philosophy and philosophical theology. In the early modern period in Iran, his metaphysical positions began to be displayed by a creative modification that they underwent due to the thinkers of the school of Isfahan, in particular Mulla Sadra (d. 1641).

    Sources on his life range from his autobiography, written at the behest of his disciple Abd al-Wahid Juzjani, his private correspondence, including the collection of philosophical epistles exchanged with his disciples and known as al-Mubahathat (The Discussions), to legends and doxographical views embedded in the histories of philosophy of medieval Islam such as Ibn al-Qiftis Tarikh al-hukama (History of the Philosophers) and Zahir al-Din Bayhaqis Tatimmat Siwan al-hikma. However, much of this material ought to be carefully examined and critically evaluated. Gutas has argued that the autobiography is a literary device to represent Avicenna as a philosopher who acquired knowledge of all the philosophical sciences through study and intuition (al-hads), a cornerstone of his epistemological theory. Thus the autobiography is an attempt to demonstrate that humans can achieve the highest knowledge through intuition. The text is a key to understanding Avicennas view of philosophy: we are told that he only understood the purpose of Aristotles Metaphysics after reading al-Farabis short treatise on it, and that often when he failed to understand a problem or solve the syllogism, he would resort to prayer in the mosque (and drinking wine at times) to receive the inspiration to understand the doctrine of intuition. We will return to his epistemology later but first what can we say about his life?

    Avicenna was born in around 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara in Transoxiana. His father, who may have been Ismaili, was a local Samanid governor. At an early age, his family moved to Bukhara where he studied Hanafi jurisprudence (fiqh) with Ismail Zahid (d. 1012) and medicine with a number of teachers. This training and the excellent library of the physicians at the Samanid court assisted Avicenna in his philosophical self-education. Thus, he claimed to have mastered all the sciences by the age of 18 and entered into the service of the Samanid court of Nuh ibn Mansur (r. 976-997) as a physician. After the death of his father, it seems that he was also given an administrative post. Around the turn of the millennium, he moved to Gurganj in Khwarazm, partly no doubt to the eclipse of Samanid rule after the Qarakhanids took Bukhara in 999. He then left again through necessity in 1012 for Jurjan in Khurasan to the south in search no doubt for a patron. There he first met his disciple and scribe Juzjani. After a year, he entered Buyid service as a physician, first with Majd al-Dawla in Rayy and then in 1015 in Hamadan where he became vizier of Shams al-Dawla. After the death of the later in 1021, he once again sought a patron and became the vizier of the Kakuyid Ala al-Dawla for whom he wrote an important Persian summa of philosophy, the Danishnama-yi Alai (The Book of Knowledge for Ala al-Dawla). Based in Isfahan, he was widely recognized as a philosopher and physician and often accompanied his patron on campaign. It was during one of these to Hamadan in 1037 that he died of colic. An arrogant thinker who did not suffer fools, he was fond of his slave-girls and wine, facts which were ammunition for his later detractors.

    Avicenna wrote his two earliest works in Bukhara under the influence of al-Farabi. The first, a Compendium on the Soul (Maqala fil-nafs), is a short treatise dedicated to the Samanid ruler that establishes the incorporeality of the rational soul or intellect without resorting to Neoplatonic insistence upon its pre-existence. The second is his first major work on metaphysics, Philosophy for the Prosodist (al-Hikma al-Arudiya) penned for a local scholar and his first systematic attempt at Aristotelian philosophy. He later wrote three encyclopaediasencyclopedias of philosophy. The first of these is al-Shifa (The Cure), a work modelled on the corpus of the philosopher, namely. Aristotle, that covers the natural sciences, logic, mathematics, metaphysics and theology. It was this work that through its Latin translation had a considerable impact on scholasticism. It was solicited by Juzjani and his other students in Hamadan in 1016 and although he lost parts of it on a military campaign, he completed it in Isfahan by 1027. The other two encyclopaedias were written later for his patron the Buyid prince Ala al-Dawla in Isfahan. The first, in Persian rather than Arabic is entitled Danishnama-yi Alai (The Book of Knowledge for Ala al-Dawla) and is an introductory text designed for the layman. It closely follows his own Arabic epitome of The Cure, namely al-Najat (The Salvation). The Book of Knowledge was the basis of al-Ghazalis later Arabic work Maqasid al-falasifa (Goals of the Philosophers). The second, whose dating and interpretation have inspired debates for centuries, is al-Isharat wal-Tanbihat (Pointers and Reminders), a work that does not present completed proofs for arguments and reflects his mature thinking on a variety of logical and metaphysical issues. According to Gutas it was written in Isfahan in the early 1030s; according to Michot, it dates from an earlier period in Hamadan and possibly Rayy. A further work entitled al-Insaf (The Judgement) which purports to represent a philosophical position that is radical and transcends AristotelianisingAristotles Neoplatonism is unfortunately not extant, and debates about its contents are rather like the arguments that one encounters concerning Platos esoteric or unwritten doctrines. One further work that has inspired much debate is The Easterners (al-Mashriqiyun) or The Eastern Philosophy (al-Hikma al-Mashriqiya) which he wrote at the end of the 1020s and is mostly lost. Avicennas major work, The Cure, was translated into Latin in 12th and 13th century Spain (Toledo and Burgos) and, although it was controversial, it had an important impact and raised controversies inin medieval scholastic philosophy. In certain cases the Latin manuscripts of the text predate the extant Arabic ones and ought to be considered more authoritative. The main significance of the Latin corpus lies in the interpretation for Avicennism andAvicennism, in particular forregarding his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his famous existence-essence distinction (more about that below) andbelow), along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe, in particular in ParisEurope. This was particularly the case in Paris, where Avicennism waslater proscribed in 1210. However, the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted. More significant is the impact of his metaphysics upon the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas. His other major work to be translated into Latin was his medical treatise the Canon, which remained a text-book into the early modern period and was studied in centrescenters of medical learning such as Padua.

    An important corollary of this argument is Avicennas famous distinction between existence and essence in contingents, between the fact that something exists and what it is. It is a distinction that is arguably latent in Aristotle although the roots of Avicennas doctrine are best understood in classical Islamic theology or kalam. Avicennas theory of essence posits three modalities: essences can exist in the external world associated with qualities and features particular to that reality; they can exist in the mind as concepts associated with qualities in mental existence; and they can exist in themselves devoid of any mode of existence. This final mode of essence is quite distinct from existence. Essences are thus existentially neutral in themselves. Existents in this world exist as something, whether human, animal or inanimate object; they are dressed in the form of some essence that is a bundle of properties that describes them as composites. God on the other hand is absolutely simple, and cannot be divided into a bundle of distinct ontological properties that would violate his unity. Contingents, as a mark of their contingency, are conceptual and ontological composites both at the first level of existence and essence and at the second level of properties. Contingent things in this world come to be as mentally distinct composites of existence and essence bestowed by the Necessary.

    This proof from contingency is also sometimes termed radical contingency. Later arguments raged concerning whether the distinction was mental or real, whether the proof is ontological or cosmological. The clearest problem with Avicennas proofs lies in the famous Kantian objection to ontological arguments: is existence meaningful in itself? Further, Cantors solution to the problem of infinity may also be seen as a setback to the argument from the impossibility of actual infinites.

    One of the most problematic implications of Avicennan epistemology relates to Gods knowledge. The divine is pure, simple and immaterial and hence cannot have a direct epistemic relation with the particular thing to be known. Thus Avicenna concluded while God knows what unfolds in this world, he knows things in a universal manner through the universal qualities of things. God only knows kinds of existents and not individuals. This resulted in the famous condemnation by al-Ghazali who said that Avicennas theory amounts to a heretical denial of Gods knowledge of particulars. particulars.

  2. Ibn Sina [Avicenna] (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) › entries › ibn-sina
    • Life and Works
    • Philosophical Aims
    • Logic and Empiricism
    • The Metaphysics of The Rational Soul; Practical Philosophy
    • Conclusion

    1.1 Life

    At some point in his later years, Avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, Abū-ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī, his Autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met; al-Jūzjānī continued the biography after that point and completed it some time after the master’s death in 1037 AD. This auto-/biographical complex, which also contains bibliographies and has been transmitted as a single document (Gohlman 1974), is an early representative of an Arab...

    1.2 Works

    Despite his peregrinatory life spent in historically turbulent times and areas, including the frequently unfavorable personal circumstances in which he found himself (as recounted in the Autobiography and Biography, Gohlman 1974), Avicenna was terribly productive, even by the standards of the highly prolific authors writing in Arabic in medieval Islam. In the Autobiography he says that by the time he was eighteen he had mastered all subjects in philosophy without anything new having come to h...

    The Autobiography, written at a time when Avicenna had reached his philosophical maturity, touches upon a number of issues that he felt were highly significant in his formation as a thinker and accordingly point the way to his approach to philosophy and his philosophical aims and orientation. These were, first, his understanding of the structure of philosophical knowledge (all intellectual knowledge, that is) as a unified whole, which is reflected in the classification of the sciences he studied; second, his critical evaluation of all past science and philosophy, as represented in his assessment of the achievements and shortcomings of previous philosophers after he had read their books in the Samanid library, which led to the realization that philosophy must be updated; and third, his emphasis on having been an autodidact points to the human capability of acquiring the highest knowledge rationally by oneself, and leads to a comprehensive study of all functions of the rational soul a...

    The starting point of Avicenna’s logic is that all knowledge is either forming concepts (taṣawwur) by means of definitions—i.e. in good Aristotelian fashion, realizing the genus and specific difference of something—or acknowledging the truth (taṣdīq) of a categorical statement by means of syllogisms. The inspiration here is clearly the beginning of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics(cf. Lameer 2006). Avicenna took this book seriously, following both the curriculum, in which this book was made the center of logical practice, and especially his two Peripatetic predecessors in Baghdad, Abū-Bishr Mattā and al-Fārābī, who made it the cornerstone of their philosophy and advertised its virtues (cf. Marmura 1990). Acknowledging the truth of a categorical statement meant verifying it, and this could only be done by taking that statement as the conclusion of a syllogism and then constructing the syllogism that would conclude it. There being three terms in a syllogism, two of which, the minor and...

    Avicenna’s rationalist empiricism is the main reason why he strove in his philosophy on the one hand to perfect and fine-tune logical method and on the other to study, at an unprecedented level of sophistication and precision, the human (rational) soul and cognitive processes which provide knowledge through the application of rational empirical methods. In section after section and chapter after chapter in numerous works he analyzes not only questions of formal logic but also the mechanics through which the rational soul acquires knowledge, and in particular the conditions operative in the process of hitting upon the middle term: how one can work for it and where to look for it, and what the apparatus and operations of the soul are that bring it about (Gutas 2001). This entailed detailed study of the operations of the soul in its totality and in all its functions, whether rational, animal, or vegetative. He charts in great detail the operations of all the senses, both the five exter...

    Avicenna synthesized the various strands of philosophical thought he inherited—the surviving Hellenic traditions along with the developments in philosophy and theology within Islam—into a self-consistent scientific system that explained all reality. His scientific edifice rested on Aristotelian physics and metaphysics capped with Neoplatonic emanationism in the context of Ptolemaic cosmology, all revised, re-thought, and critically re-assessed by him. His achievement consisted in his harmonization of the disparate parts into a rational whole, and particularly in bringing the sublunar and supralunar worlds into an intelligible relation for which he argued logically. The system was therefore both a research program and a worldview. Aristotelian ethics provided the foundation of the edifice. The imperative to know, and to know rationally, which is the motivation behind Avicenna’s conception and then realization of his scientific system, is based on Aristotle’s concept of happiness as t...

  3. Avicenna - Biography, Facts and Pictures


    Avicenna Also popularly known as ‘Avicenna’, Ibn Sina was indeed a true polymath with his contributions ranging from medicine, psychology and pharmacology to geology, physics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy. He was also a poet, an Islamic scholar and theologian.

  4. Avicenna - New World Encyclopedia › entry › Avicenna
    • Works
    • Philosophy
    • Medicine
    • Poetry
    • Influence
    • References
    • External Links

    Al-Qifti states that Avicenna completed 21 major and 24 minor works on philosophy, medicine, theology, geometry, astronomyand the like. Another source (Brockelmann) attributes 99 books to Avicenna comprising 16 on medicine, 68 on theology and metaphysics 11 on astronomy and four on verse. Avicenna’s two earliest works, written under the influence of al-Farabi, are Compendium on the Soul (Maqala fi’l-nafs), a short treatise on the intellect, and Philosophy for the Prosodist (al-Hikma al-‘Arudiya), his first book on Aristotelian philosophy. He later wrote three encyclopedias of philosophy. Written at the request of his students, al-Shifa’ (The Cure) (completed in 1027), was modeled on the works of Aristotle. Its Latin translation was widely read by medieval European scholars. Two later encyclopedias were written for Avicenna’s patron, Abu Ya'far 'Ala Addaula. Danishnama-yi ‘Ala’i (The Book of Knowledge for ‘Ala’ al-Dawla), written in Persian, is intended as an introduction to philosop...

    Avicenna is one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and one of the first to attempt a correlation between philosophy and religion. He expounded the Neoplatonic concept of emanation, but rejected other Neoplatonic ideas such as the pre-existence of the soul, and used Aristotelian logicto develop his arguments.

    The most important of Avicenna’s 16 medical works, the 14-volume Qanun (The Canon of Medicine), contains over one million words and is divided into five books. The first gives general principles of medicine; the second is an alphabetical listing of simple drugs; the third deals with diseases of particular organs and parts of the body; the fourth with diseases which spread throughout the body from an initial starting point, such as fevers; and the fifth with compound medicines. The work classified and described diseases; outlined their assumed causes; and covered hygiene, simple and complex medicines, and functions of parts of the body. It asserted that tuberculosis was contagious, and described the symptoms and complications of diabetes. The “Canon” was translated into Latin in the twelfth century and remained a major textbook for medical students in Europe for several centuries. In the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of his writings, surgical instruments from the...

    Almost half of Avicenna's works are versified, and his poems appear in both Arabic and Persian. His most celebrated Arabic poem describes the descent of Soul into the Body from the Higher Sphere. Edward Granville Browne claims that the following verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám, but were originally written by Avicenna: از قعر گل سیاه تا اوج زحل, Up from Earth's Centre through the Seventh Gate کردم همه مشکلات گیتی را حل, I rose, and on the Throne of Saturn sate, بیرون جستم زقید هر مکر و حیل, And many Knots unravel'd by the Road; هر بند گشاده شد مگر بند اجل. But not the Master-Knot of Human Fate.

    Avicenna’s major work, al-Shifa' (The Cure), was translated into Latin in twelfth and thirteenth century Spain (Toledo and Burgos). His ideas, particularly on the nature of the soul and the difference between existence and essence, had an important impact on medieval scholastic philosophy. These raised considerable debate in the Roman Catholic world, and Avicennism was proscribed in Paris in 1210. The work of Thomas Aquinas was influenced by Avicenna’s metaphysics; and William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnusby his psychology and theory of knowledge. In the Islamic world, where he also generated extensive debate and argument, Avicenna set forth a sound philosophical system rooted in Islamic theology. Decades after his death, two Islamic theologians al-Ghazali (d. 1111) and al-Shahrastani (d. 1153) attacked him as a representative of philosophy. Both al-Shifa’ (The Cure) and al-Isharat wa’l-Tanbihat(Pointers and Reminders) became standard philosophy texts in Islamic schools. Suhraward...

    Avicenna. Canon of Medicine.Abjad Book Designers & Builders, 1999
    Corbin, Henry. Avicenne et le récit visionnaire, édition bilingueVerdier, 1999. (In French)
    __________. History of Islamic Philosophy.Kegan Paul, 2001. ISBN 978-710304162 (in English)
    Nasr, Seyyed, (ed) and Oliver Leaman. History of Islamic Philosophy. (Routledge History of World Philosophies)London: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 9780415259347

    All links retrieved May 3, 2016. 1. Biography of Avicenna "Ibn Sina"(in English) 2. AvicennaCatholic Encyclopedia. 3. "Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna)"MacTutor Biography. 4. Raul Corazzon The Essence-Existence Distinction, The Ontology of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)"Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) on the Subject and the Object of Metaphysics" 5. Sajjad H. Rizvi Avicenna, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Contains bibliography of many works influenced by Avicenna.)

  5. AVICENNA ii. Biography – Encyclopaedia Iranica › articles › avicenna-ii

    Dec 15, 1987 · The assessment first made by Ebn Abī Oṣaybeʿa in the middle of the 7th/13th century has been valid ever since for both Muslim and Western scholars: Avicenna “mentioned his personal circumstances and described his own life in a way that relieves others of describing it again” (Ketāb ʿoyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭebbāʾ, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1882-84, II, p. 2).

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