The Baroque (UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k /, US: / b ə ˈ r oʊ k /; French: ) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s.
- 17th–18th centuries
1 art : of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a style of artistic expression prevalent especially in the 17th century that is marked generally by use of complex forms, bold ornamentation, and the juxtaposition of contrasting elements often conveying a sense of drama, movement, and tension a baroque cathedral baroque music and literature the baroque period
1. also Baroque Of, relating to, or characteristic of a style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early 17th to mid-18th century, emphasizing dramatic, often strained effect and typified by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts.
(often initial capital letter) of or relating to a style of architecture and art originating in Italy in the early 17th century and variously prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterized by free and sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, by forms in elevation and plan suggesting movement, and by dramatic effect in which architecture, painting, sculpture, and the decorative arts often worked to combined effect.
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The term Baroque probably ultimately derived from the Italian word barocco, which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic. Subsequently the word came to denote any contorted idea or involuted process of thought.
- Evolution of The Baroque
- Baroque Visual Art
- Baroque Sculpture
- Baroque Architecture
- Baroque Theater and Dance
- Baroque Literature and Philosophy
- Impact of Baroque Music
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Baroque was preceded by Mannerism. In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. It made the sculpturesalmost seem like they were about to move. Beginning around the year 1600, the demands for new art resulted in what is now known as the Baroque. The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (1545–1563), by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. Stechow referred to Baroque as "a basically new and optimistic equilibrium of religious and secular forces."...
A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre) , in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theater into one grand conceit . The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque. The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail—observed in such things as the conv...
In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Oftentimes, other figures would be sculpted almost as an audience for the event or scene depicted. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles, as opposed to the Mannerist tendency to have a single "photo-friendly" angle. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. It was very common for the building housing the sculpture to be just as important as the figure, much as a frame could be important to a painting. The Baroque emphasis on light was crucial, and required special planning for the staging of the figures. Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the Santuário de Bom Jesus...
In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro),'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a processional sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions. Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see e.g. Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden), Austria and Russia (see e.g. Peterhof and Catherine Palace). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrughand Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. 16...
In theater, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns, and variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism (Shakespeare's tragedies, for instance) are superseded by opera, which drew together all the arts in a unified whole. Theater evolves in the Baroque era and becomes a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. It is during this era that most of the technologies that we currently see in current Broadway or commercial plays were invented and developed. The stage changes from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space becomes a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology - mostly ropes and pulleys. These new abilities led to rich spectacles that sought to boast their opulence, particularly elaborate operas, which stayed true to the emotionally-invested Baroque movement by using heavy symbolism and grandeur to evoke emotion while kee...
Baroque actually expressed new values, which often are summarized in the use of metaphor and allegory, widely found in Baroque literature, and in the research for the "maraviglia" (wonder, astonishment — as in Marinism), the use of artifices. If Mannerism was a first breach with Renaissance, Baroque was an opposed language. The psychological pain of Man—a theme disbanded after the Copernican and the Lutheranrevolutions in search of solid anchors, a proof of an "ultimate human power"—was to be found in both the art and architecture of the Baroque period. A relevant part of works was made on religious themes, since the Roman Church was the main "customer." Virtuosity was researched by artists (and the virtuoso became a common figure in any art) together with realism and care for details (some talk of a typical "intricacy"). John Milton's Paradise Lost was a famous Baroque epic, written in blank verse. Satan serves as the book's protagonist, and the epic deals with the Fall of Man. The...
The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period. J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel are often considered its culminating figures. (See article on Baroque music). It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation, and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque gave way to the Classical period. It should be noted that the application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development. The first use of the word "Baroque" in music was only in 1919, by Curt Sachs, and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer). Even as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute i...Bazin, Germain. Baroque and Rococo. New York and London: Thames & Hudson, 1964. ISBN 0500200181Friedrich, Carl. J. The Rise of Modern Europe: The Age of the Baroque.New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, 1952. ASIN B000JVC1OSWölfflin, Heinrich. Renaissance and Baroque. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1964. ISBN 0801490464Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco, London: Harper & Row, 1977. ISBN 0064300773
All links retrieved May 13, 2016. 1. Webmuseum Paris 2. barocke in Val di Noto - Sizilien 3. Baroque in the "History of Art"
Baroque music, a style of music that prevailed during the period from about 1600 to about 1750, known for its grandiose, dramatic, and energetic spirit but also for its stylistic diversity. Keyboard Sonata in D Minor, K 64, by Domenico Scarlatti, played on the piano.
About the Baroque Period Derived from the Portuguese barroco, or “oddly shaped pearl,” the term “baroque” has been widely used since the nineteenth century to describe the period in Western European art music from about 1600 to 1750.
Nov 06, 2018 · The Baroque period was a cultural awakening in the art world, so it's no surprise it produced some of the most historic paintings in the history of the world. Make sure to also check out famous Baroque artists and the best Baroque composers .